The Harvard (author-date) system is made up of two parts:
- an in-text citation and a
- bibliographyat the end of the document.
In a piece of research, ideas taken from other people are indicated by placing the author's surname and the date of publication in rounded brackets (e.g. Apple 2013). The bibliography at the end of the document then lists the references in alphabetical order by authorss surnames.
This guide provides instructions and over 130 examples using Harvard referencing. To find a variety of types of sources, you can use the A-Z on each page or the full page listing which includes links to all examples.
Important: There are many variations of the Harvard style. Be sure to match the Harvard style that best fits the style recommended in your course handbook. Always ask your tutor which referencing style s/he wants you to use in your academic work.
Tip! Be consistent in the referencing style you use.
More referencing information can be found in the following LibGuides:
You can also find guides for the following referencing tools:
Last revised 2017
Welcome to the Music Referencing Guide.
The two most commonly used referencing styles at the Elder Conservatorium of Music are:
- Author-Date style (also known as Harvard style). This style consists of a brief in-text citation (author, date) + a list of the works cited at the end. The works cited list does NOT include wider reading - it includes ONLY those works cited in-text.
- MLA style (also known as Notes and Bibliography style). This style consists of footnotes for direct in-text citation + a bibliography at the end of works consulted. The bibliography DOES include works consulted in preparation of the essay, even if they have not been directly cited.
Both of these referencing styles, as used by the Conservatorium, follow the guidelines set out in The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed.
It is important to check which style your lecturer wishes you to use, and to apply this rigorously and consistently.
In all referencing styles, the details of punctuation, spacingand use of italics are critically important.
Click on the tabs above to access examples in the referencing style required.
Click here for further resources on academic writing and referencing styles.