Books of essays on Heidegger
Appropriating Heidegger. Edited by James E. Faulconer and Mark A. Wrathall, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2000.
The first edition contains:
- Appropriating Heidegger, James E. Faulconer
- Philosophy, thinkers, and Heidegger’s place in the history of being, Mark A. Wrathall
- Night and day: Heidegger and Thoreau, Stanley Cavell
- Heidegger’s alleged challenge to the Nazi concepts of race, Robert Bernasconi
- Heidegger and ethics beyond the call of duty, Albert Borgmann
- People of God, people of being: the theological presuppositions of Heidegger’s path of thought, John D. Caputo
- Heidegger for beginners, Simon Critchley
- The critique of anthropologism in Heidegger’s thought, Françoise Dastur
- In respectful contempt: Heidegger, appropriation, facticity, Rudi Visker
- Could anything be more intelligible than everyday intelligibility? Reinterpreting division I of Being and Time in the light of division II, Hubert L. Dreyfus
- Another time, John Sallis
- Intentionality, teleology, and normativity, Mark Okrent
The Bloomsbury Companion to Heidegger. Edited by François Raffoul and Eric S. Nelson, London, Bloomsbury Academic, 2013.
- Heidegger and the question of biography, Theodore Kisiel
- The early Heidegger, Dermot Moran
- The Turn: all three of them, Thomas Sheehan
- Heidegger in the 1930s: who are we?, Richard Polt
- Heidegger, Nietzsche, National Socialism: the place of metaphysics in the political debate of the 1930s, Robert Bernasconi
- The later Heidegger: the question of the other beginning of thinking, Françoise Dastur
- Heidegger’s correspondence, Alfred Denker
- Heidegger and Greek philosophy, Sean D. Kirkland
- Heidegger and medieval philosophy, Holger Zaborowski
- Heidegger and Descartes, Emilia Angelova
- Heidegger and Kant: three guiding questions, Frank Schalow
- Heidegger and German idealism, Peter Trawny
- Heidegger and Nietzsche, Ullrich Haase
- Heidegger and Dilthey: a difference in interpretation, Eric S. Nelson
- Heidegger and Husserl, Leslie MacAvoy
- Heidegger, Neo-Kantianism, and Cassirer, Peter E. Gordon
- Heidegger and Carnap: disagreeing about nothing?, Eric S. Nelson
- Heidegger and Arendt: the lawful space of worldly appearance, Peg Birmingham
- Heidegger and Gadamer, Emilia Angelova
- Heidegger and Marcuse: on reification and concrete philosophy, Andrew Feenberg
- Early lecture courses, Scott M. Campbell
- Heidegger, persuasion, and Aristotle’s Rhetoric, P. Christopher Smith
- Being and Time, Dennis J. Schmidt
- The Origin of the Work of Art, Gregory Schufreider
- Introduction to Metaphysics, Gregory Fried
- Contributions to Philosophy, Peter Trawny
- The Hölderlin lectures, William McNeill
- The “Letter on Humanism”: ek-sistence, being, and language, Andrew J. Mitchell
- The Bremen lectures, Andrew J. Mitchell
- Later essays and seminars, Lee Braver
- Art, Andrew Bowie
- Birth and death, Anne O’Byrne
- The Body, Kevin Aho
- Dasein, François Raffoul
- Ereignis, Daniela Vallega-Neu
- Ethics, François Raffoul
- The Fourfold, Andrew J. Mitchell
- Language, John McCumber
- The Nothing, Gregory Schufreider
- Ontotheology, Iain Thomson
- Religion and Theology, Ben Vedder
- Science, Trish Glazebrook
- Space: The Open in which We Sojourn, John Russon and Kirsten Jacobson
- Technology, Hans Ruin
- Truth, Daniel O. Dahlstrom
- Heidegger and Sartre: Historicity, Destiny, and Politics, Robert Bernasconi
- Heidegger and Adorno, Iain Macdonald
- Heidegger and Levinas, Jill Stauffer
- Heidegger and Derrida, François Raffoul
- Heidegger and Foucault, Leonard Lawlor
- Heidegger and Deleuze, Andrea Janae Sholtz and Leonard Lawlor
- Heidegger's Anglo-American Reception, Leslie MacAvoy
- Heidegger and Environmental Philosophy, Trish Glazebrook
- Heidegger and Gender: an Uncanny Retrieval of Hegel’s Antigone, Tina Chanter
- Heidegger and Post-Cartesian Psychoanalysis, Robert D. Stolorow
- Heidegger and Asian Philosophy, Bret W. Davis
- Heidegger and Latin American Philosophy, Alejandro Arturo Vallega
The Cambridge Companion to Heidegger. Edited and introduction by Charles B. Guignon, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1993, 2006.
The first edition contains:
- The question of being: Heidegger's project, Dorothea Frede
- Reading a life: Heidegger and hard times, Thomas Sheehan
- The unity of Heidegger's thought, Fredrick A. Olafson
- Intentionality and world: Division I of Being and Time Harrison Hall
- Time and phenomenology in Husserl and Heidegger, Robert J. Dostal
- Heidegger and the hermeneutic turn, David Couzens Hoy
- Death, time, history: Division II of Being and Time, Piotr Hoffman
- Authenticity, moral values, and psychotherapy, Charles B. Guignon
- Heidegger, Buddhism, and deep ecology, Michael E. Zimmerman
- Heidegger and theology, John D. Caputo
- Heidegger on the connection between nihilism, art, technology, and politics, Hubert L. Dreyfus
- Engaged agency and background in Heidegger, Charles Taylor
- Wittgenstein, Heidegger, and the reification of language, Richard Rorty
The second edition drops Olafson, Hall, and Rorty, and adds:
- The principle of phenomenology, Taylor Carman
- Laying the ground for metaphysics: Heidegger's appropriation of Kant, William Blattner
- Truth and the essence of truth in Heidegger's thought, Mark Wrathall
- The fourfold, Julian Young
In his introduction, the editor offers this description of Ereignis:
Epochs in the history of being are brought about through what Heidegger calls an Ereignis, a word meaning "event" but tied to the idea of "owness" or "appropriation" (eigen), and so suggesting "an event of coming-into-its-own>." If unconcealment results from an event within being and so is not something humans do, it follows that the concealment running through the history of metaphysics is also something that happens within being itself. Concealment inevitably accompanies every emerging-into-presence in this sense: just as the items in a room can become visible only if the lighting that illuminates them itself becomes invisible, so things can become manifest only if this manifesting itself "stays away" or "withdraws." This first-order concealment is unavoidable and innocuous. But it becomes aggravated by a second-order concealment that occurs when the original concealment itself is concealed. That is, insofar as humans are oblivious to the fact that every disclosedness involves concealment, they fall into the illusion of thinking that nothing is hidden, and that everything is totally out front.
Michael Zimmerman, in his essay, notes the resonances between Ereignis and Asian thought.
[...L]ater Heidegger's notion of the event of appropriation (Ereignis), which gathers mortals together into the luminous cosmic dance with gods, earth, and sky, bears important similarities to Buddhism's mutual coproduction and Lao Tsu's tao, both of which are regarded as nonanthropocentric. Ereignis, sun-yata, tao: these may be different names for the acausal, spontaneous arising and mutually appropriating play of phenomena. In suggesting that Ereignis "gives" time and being, Heidegger opens himself to the criticism that he is inventing a "metaphysics" of nothingness. Nevertheless, Dogen (1200-53 A.D.), founder of Zen's Soto sect, analyzed the temporality of absolute nothingness in a way that has significant affinities both with early Heidegger's notion of temporality as the "clearing" for presencing and with later Heidegger's notion of the mutually appropriative play of appearances.
A Companion To Heidegger. Edited by Hubert L. Dreyfus & Mark A. Wrathall, Oxford, Blackwell, 2005.
- Martin Heidegger: An Introduction to His Thought, Work, and Life, Hubert L. Dreyfus and Mark A. Wrathall
Part I: Early Heidegger: Themes and Influences
- The Earliest Heidegger: A New Field of Research, John van Buren
- Heidegger and National Socialism, Iain Thomson
- Heidegger and Husserl: The Matter and Method of Philosophy, Steven Crowell
- Heidegger and German Idealism, Daniel O. Dahlstrom
- Early Heidegger's Appropriation of Kant, Béatrice Han-Pile
- Heidegger's Nietzsche, Hans Sluga
- Heidegger and the Greeks, Carol J. White
- Logic, Stephan Käufer
- Phenomenology, Edgar C. Boedeker Jr
- Heidegger's Philosophy of Science, Joseph Rouse
Part II: Being and Time
- Dasein, Thomas Sheehan
- Heidegger's Categories in Being and Time, Robert Brandom
- Early Heidegger on Sociality, Theodore R. Schatzki
- Realism and Truth, David R. Cerbone
- Hermeneutics, Cristina Lafont
- Authenticity, Taylor Carman
- Human Mortality: Heidegger on How to Portray the Impossible Possibility of Dasein, Stephen Mulhall
- Temporality, William Blattner
- Dasein and "Its" Time, Piotr Hoffman
Part III: Heidegger's Later Thought
- Unconcealment, Mark A. Wrathall
- Contributions to Philosophy, Hans Ruin. Here's an excerpt on Ereignis that is not a thing.
- Ereignis, Richard Polt. This essay identifies three stages of Ereignis.
- The History of Being, Charles Guignon
- Heidegger's Ontology of Art, Hubert L. Dreyfus
- Technology, Albert Borgmann
- Heidegger on Language, Charles Taylor
- The Thinging of the Thing: The Ethic of Conditionality in Heidegger's Later Work, James C. Edwards
- The Truth of Being and the History of Philosophy, Mark B. Okrent
- Derrida and Heidegger: Interability and Ereignis, Charles Spinosa
- Heidegger, Contingency, and Pragmatism, Richard Rorty
Four of these essays appeared in the earlier Heidegger: A Critical Reader, below, but the rest are new to this volume, and all are generally of an exceptional quality and from the leading contributors in the evolving field of Heidegger scholarship. Heidegger's works continue to be translated and published, and our understanding of his themes is improving. This volume is both the most comprehensive collection of essays on Heidegger to date, and also has the most recent interpretations.
Critical Heidegger Edited by Christopher Macann, London, Routledge, 1996.
- The mirror with the triple reflection, Marléne Zarader
- Dasein as praxis: the Heideggerian assimilation and radicalization of the practical philosophy of Aristotle, Franco Volpi
- Heidegger and Descartes, Jean-Luc Marion
- Heidegger's Kant interpretation, Christopher Macann
- Critical remarks on the Heideggerian reading of Nietzsche, Michel Haar
- Heidegger's conception of space, Maria Villela-Petit
- The ekstatico-horizonal constitution of temporality, Francoise Dastur
- Way and method: hermeneutic phenomenology in thinking the history of being, Friedrich-Wilhelm von Herrmann
- The end of philosophy as the commencement of thinking, Samuel IJsseling
- Does the saving power also grow? Heidegger's last paths, Otto Pöggeler
- Heidegger's idea of truth, Ernst Tugendhat
- Wittgenstein and Heidegger: language games and life forms, Karl-Otto Apel
Diacritics volume 19 numbers 3-4 Heidegger: Art and Politics
Edited by Rodolphe Gasché and Anthony Appiah, Baltimore, The John Hopkins University Press, 1989.
- Comment donner raison? 'How to Concede, with Reasons?', Jacques Derrida
- Politics and Modern Art—Heidegger's Dilemma, Jean-Joseph Goux
- Flight of Spirit, John Sallis
- Required Reading, Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe
- On the Errancy of Dasein, Stephen Watson
- The Differends of Man, Avital Ronell
- Heidegger and the Earth, Jacques Taminiaux
- Adorno and Heidegger, Fred Dallmayr
- "Like the Rose—without Why": Postmodern Transcendentalism and Practical Philosophy, Rodolphe Gasché
- The Reception of Heidegger's Thought in American Literary Criticism, Krzysztof Ziarek
- Heidegger Fort Derrida, Ned Lukacher
Division III of Heidegger's Being & Time The Unanswered Question of Being
Edited by Lee Braver, Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press, 2015.
- Heidegger's Parmenides, Alain Badiou
- Metaphysics without Metaphysics, Alain Badiou
- Turning from a Given Horizon to the Givenness of Horizons, Lee Braver
- The End of Fundamental Ontology, Daniel O. Dahlstrom
- The Place of Division III in Heidegger's Plan ofr Being and Time: Part One as Discovering a "Clue" and Part Two as Giving the Answer, Charles B. Guignon
- The Beings of Being: On the Failure of Heidegger's Ontico-Ontological Priority, Graham Harman
- The Antinomy of Being and the End of Philosophy, Karsten Harries
- The Drafts of "Time and Being": Division III of Part One of Being and Time and Beyond, Theodore Kisiel
- On Being as a Whole and Being-a-Whole, Dennis McManus
- What is Missing? The incompleteness and Failure of Heidegger's Being and Time, Eric S. Nelson
- From the Understanding of Being to the Happening of Being, Richard Polt
- The Incompletion of Being and Time and the Question of Subjectivity, François Raffoul
- Did Heidegger Ever Finish Being and Time?, Thomas Sheehan
- The Failure of Philosophy: Why Didn't Being and Time Answer the Question of Being?, Iain Thomson
- Being and the Sea: Being as Phusis and Time, Katherine Withy
- Was There a "Turn" in Heidegger's Philosophy?, Julian Young
Endings Questions of Memory in Hegel and Heidegger Edited by Rebecca Comay and John McCumber, Evanston, Illinois, Northwestern University Press, 1999.
- Heidegger-Hegel: An Impossible "Dialogue"?, Dominique Janicaud
- The History of Being and Its Hegelian Model, Michel Haar
- Circulation and Constitution at the End of History, David Kolb
- "We Philosophers": Barbaros medeis eisito, Robert Bernasconi
- Ruins and Roses: Hegel and Heidegger on Sacrifice, Mourning, and Memory, Dennis J. Schmidt
- The Hegelian Legacy in Heidegger's Overcoming of Aesthetics, Jacques Taminiaux
- Hegel's Art of Memory, Martin Donougho
- Heidegger on Hegel's Antigone: The Memory of Gender and the Forgetfulness of the Ethical Difference, Kathleen Wright
- Stuff . Thread . Point . Fire: Hölderlin on Historical Memory and Tragic Dissolution, David Farrell Krell
- Stone, John Sallis
From Phenomenology to Thought, Errancy, and Desire Essays in Honor of William J. Richarson, S.J. Edited by Babette E. Babich, Dordrecht, Netherlands, Kluwer, 1995.
Part I: Essays on the Early Heidegger, the Late Heidegger, Heidegger I/II, The Beiträge
- Through Phenomenology to Concealment, Graeme Nicholson
- Authenticity, Poetry, God, Karsten Harries
- The Power of Essential Thinking in Heidegger's Beitraege zur Philosophie (Vom Ereignis), George Kovacs
- Raising Atlantis: The Later Heidegger and Contemporary Philosophy, David Kolb
- Surplus Being: The Kantian Legacy, Richard Kearney
- Existenz in Incubation Underway Toward Being and Time, Theodore Kisiel
- "Heidegger I," "Heidegger II," and Beiträge zur Philosophie (Vom Ereignis), Parvis Emad
- Reticence and Resonance in the Work of Translating, Kenneth Maly
- Das Gewesen: Remembering the Fordham Years, Thomas Sheehan
Part II: Through Phenomenology to Thinking: The Turning of the Existential Question
- The Turn, Joan Stambaugh
- Letter to Bill Richardson, Charles E. Scott
Part III: The Political and The Philosophical: Arrant Errancy
- Dark Hearts: Heidegger, Richardson, and Evil, John D. Caputo
- Heidegger's Fall, William J. Richardson, S.J.
- "I Will Tell You Who You Are." Heidegger on Greco-German Destiny and Amerikanismus, Robert Bernasconi
- The Uses and Abuses of Aristotle's Rhetoric in Heidegger's Fundamental Ontology: The Lecture Course, Summer, 1924, P. Christopher Smith
- On Empty and Full Speech: Intelligibility and Change in the Public World, James Bohman
Part IV: The Ethics of Desire: Philosophy and Psychoanalysis
- Lacan and Heidegger: The Ethics of Desire and the Ethics of Authenticity, Richard Capobianco
- Adaequatio Sexualis, Charles Shepherdson
- Ontical Craving Versus Ontological Desire, Michael E. Zimmerman
Part V: Psychoanalysis, Science, and the World: Calculation and Transfiguration
- Reflections on the "Foundations" of Psychology and Psychoanalysis, Joseph J. Kockelmans
- Heidegger and Freud, Fred Dallmayr
- Heidegger's Longest Day: Twenty-Five Years Later, Patrick A. Heelan
- Heidegger's Philosophy of Science: Calculation, Thought, and Gelassenheit, Babette E. Babich
- The World as a Whole, Alphonso Lingis
- Martin Heidegger, William Richardson, S.J.
There an excerpt of Parvis Emad on the shift from dasein to Ereignishere.
Heidegger: A Critical Reader. Edited by Hubert L. Dreyfus & Harrison Hall, Oxford, Blackwell, 1992.
- Dasein's Disclosedness, John Haugeland
- Heidegger's Categories in Being and Time, Robert Brandom
- The Familiar and the Strange: On the Limits of Praxis in the Early Heidegger, Joseph P. Fell
- Early Heidegger Being, the Clearing, and Realism, Theodore R. Schatzki
- Existential Temporality in Being and Time (Why Heidegger is not a Pragmatist), Wiliiam D. Blattner
- History and Commitment in the Early Heidegger, Charles B. Guignon
- The Truth of Being and the History of Philosophy, Mark B. Okrent
- Attunement and Thinking, Michel Haar
- Heidegger's History of the Being of Equipment, Hubert Dreyfus
- Work and Weltanschauung: The Heidegger Controversy from a German Perspective, Jurgen Habermas
- Heidegger, Contingency, and Pragmatism, Richard Rorty
- Who is Heidegger's Nietzsche? (on the Very Idea of the Present Age), Randall E. Havas
- Heidegger, Language, and Ecology, Charles Taylor
- Derrida and Heidegger: Interability and Ereignis, Charles Spinosa
In his essay "Derrida and Heidegger", Charles Spinosa quotes Heidegger on Ereignis in On Time and Being and then remarks:
Once we understand that, by "Ereignis," Heidegger means the tendency to make things show up in the most resonant way, we can see that Heidegger is simply saying here that some time around the fifth century BC, the style of revealing appropriate for craftsmen producing things urged itself upon the early philosophers as a sort of mot juste that they were lucky enough to receive as the most resonating (gathering) account of how things showed up in general. Focusing on terms that articulated this practice seemed to bring people and things into their own, and the West has thought out of this Greek understanding ever since.
Heidegger and Asian Thought. Edited by Graham Parkes, Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press, 1987.
- Heidegger and Vedanta: Reflections on a Questionable Theme, J. L. Mehta
- West-East Dialogue: Heidegger and Lao-tzu, Otto Pöggeler
- Heidegger, Taoism, and the Question of Metaphysics, Joan Stambaugh
- Heidegger and Our Translation of the Tao Te Ching, Paul Shih-yi Hsiao
- Thoughts on the Way: Being and Time via Lao-Chuang, Graham Parkes
- Reflections on Two Addresses by Martin Heidegger, Keiji Nishitani
- The Encounter of Modern Japanese Philosophy with Heidegger, Yasuo Yuasa
- On the Origin of Nihilism—In View of the Problem of Technology, Akihiro Takeichi
- Heidegger's Bremen Lectures: Towards a Dialogue with His Later Thought, Kohei Mizoguchi
- Language and Silence: Self-Inquiry in Heidegger and Zen, Tetsuaki Kotoh
- Afterwords—Language, Graham Parkes
- Heidegger's Way with Sinitic Thinking, Hwa Yol Jung
- Mudra as Thinking: Developing Our Wisdom-of-Being in Gesture and Movement, David Michael Levin.
Heidegger and Foucault Critical Encounters. Edited by Alan Milchman and Alan Rosenberg, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 2003.
- Towards a Foucault/Heidegger Auseinandersetzung, Alan Milchman and Alan Rosenberg
- "Being and Power" Revisited, Hubert L. Dreyfus
- Heidegger and Foucault: Escaping Technological Nihilism, Jana Sawicki
- Nietzsche, Heidegger, and Foucault: Nihilism and Beyond, Steven V. Hicks
- Subjecting Dasein, Ladelle McWhorter
- Foucault and Heidegger on Kant and Finitude, Béatrice Han
- Epistemes and the History of Being, Michael Schwartz
- Reading Genealogy as Historical Ontology, Stuart Elden
- The Ethics and Politics of Narrative: Heidegger + Foucault, Leslie Paul Thiele
- Heidegger, Foucault, and the "Empire of the Gaze": Thinking the Territorialization of Knowledge, William V. Spanos
- Heidegger, Foucault, and the Askeses of Self-Transformation, Edith Wyschogrod
- From Foucault to Heidegger: A One-Way Ticket?, Rudi Visker
- Lightness of Mind and Density in the Thought of Heidegger and Foucault, Charles E. Scott
Heidegger and Jaspers. Edited by Alan M. Olson, Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1994.
- Heidegger and Jaspers, Paul Tillich
- Heidegger's Philosophy of Being from the Perspective of His Rectorate, Leonard H. Ehrlich
- Shame, Guilt, Responsibility, Karsten Harries
- The Psychological Dimension in Jasper's Relationship with Heidegger, Harold H. Oliver
- On the Responsibility of Intellectuals, Joseph Margolis
- Jaspers and Heidegger: Philosophy and Politics, Tom Rockmore
- Heidegger and Jaspers on Plato's Idea of the Good, Klaus Brinkmann
- The Space of Transcendence in Jaspers and Heidegger, Stephen A. Erickson
- The Concept of Freedom in Jaspers and Heidegger, Krystyna Gorniak-Kocikowska
- Heidegger's Debt to Jaspers's Concept of the Limit-Situation, William D. Blattner
Heidegger and Language. Edited by Jeffery Powell, Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 2013.
- Heidegger's Ontological Analysis of Language, Daniel O. Dahlstrom
- Listening to the Silence: Reticence and the Call of Conscience in Heidegger's Philosophy, Walter Brogan
- In Force of Language: Language and Desire in Heidegger's Reading of Aristotle's Metaphysics Θ, William McNeill
- The Secret Homeland of Speech: Heidegger on Language, 1933—1934, Richard Polt
- The Logic of Thinking, John Sallis
- Giving Its Word: Event (as) Language, Krzysztof Ziarek
- Heidegger's Poietic Writings: From Contributions to Philosophy to Das Ereignis, Daniela Vallega-Neu
- Poets as Prophets and as Painters: Heidegger's Turn to Language and the Hölderlinian Turn in Context, Robert Bernasconi
- Truth Be Told: Homer, Plato, and Heidegger, Dennis J. Schmidt
- The Way to Heidegger's "Way to Language", Jeffrey L. Powell
- Is There a Heidegger—or, for That Matter, a Lacan—Beyond All Gathering?, David Farrell Krell
- Heidegger and the Question of the "Essence" of Language, Françoise Dastur
- Dark Celebration: Heidegger's Silent Music, Peter Hanly
- Heidegger with Blanchot: On the Way to Fragmentation, Christopher Fynsk
Heidegger and Modern Philosophy. Edited by Michael Murray, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1978.
- Heidegger and Symbolic Logic, Albert Borgmann
- The Overcoming of Metaphysics through Logical Analysis of Language, Rudolf Carnap
- Heidegger's Critique of Science and Technology, Harold Alderman
- Heidegger's Sein und Zeit, Gilbert Ryle
- Fundamental Ontology and the Search for Man's Place, Kersten Harries
- On Heidegger on Being and Dread, Ludwig Wittgenstein
- Being as Appropriation, Otto Pöggeler, translated by Rüdiger H. Grimm
- Thinking about Nothing, Stanley Rosen
- The Task of Hermeneutics, Paul Ricoeur
- The Historicity of Understanding as Hermeneutic Principle, Hans-Georg Gadamer
- Heidegger on the Metaphor and Philosophy, Ronald Bruzina
- Heidegger's Linguistic Rehabilitation of Parmenides' 'Being',George Vick
- Husserl and Heidegger: Philosophy's Last Stand, Hubert Dreyfus and John Haugeland
- Overcoming the Tradition: Heidegger and Dewey, Richard Rorty
- Heidegger and Wittgenstein: A Second Kantian Revolution, Ross Mandel
- Heidegger and Ryle: Two versions of Phenomenology, Michael Murray
- Martin Heidegger at Eighty, Hannah Arendt
- Heidegger as a Political Thinker, Karsten Harries
- History, Historicity, and Historiography in Being and Time, David Couzens Hoy.
The Wittgenstein piece is from some remarks he made at Moritz Schlick's (the founder of Logical Positivism) on December 30, 1929.
I can readily think what Heidegger means by Being and Dread. Man has the impulse to run up against the limits of language. Think, for example, of the astonishment that anything exists. This astonishment cannot be expressed in the form of a question, and there is also no answer to it. Everything which we feel like saying can, a priori, only be nonsense. Nevertheless, we do run up against the limits of language. This running-up against Kierkegaard also recognized and even designated it in a quite similar way (as running-up against Paradox). This running-up against the limits of language is Ethics. I hold that it is truly important that one put an end to all the idle talk about Ethics—whether there be knowledge, whether there be values, whether the Good can be defined, etc. In Ethics one is always making the attempt to say something that does not concern the essence of the matter and never can concern it. It is a priori certain that whatever one might offer as a definition of the Good, it is simply a misunderstanding to think that it corresponds in expression to the authentic matter one actually means (Moore). Yet the tendency represented by the running-up against points to something. St. Augustine already knew this when he said: What, you wretch,so you want to avoid talking nonsense? Talk some nonsense, it makes no difference!
Although it is often said that Wittgenstein did not know the history of philosophy, that he was an engineer that learned logic from Russell and Whitehead, and went on to develop his own philosophy without bothering to read other philosophers, in this passage he refers to three other philosophers one does not associate with the analytical branch of philosophy. One wonders what the others in the Vienna thought of these comments.
In his essay, Otto Pöggeler writes this about Ereignis:
Being, taken as the unavailable and at each time historical destining of Being [Seinsgeschick], reveals itself as its meaning, or in its openness and truth, as the event of appropriation [Ereignis]. "Ereignis' does not mean here, as it still did within the terminology of Being and Time, a certain occurrence or happening, but rather Dasein's complete self-realization in Being, and Being's appropriation [zueignen] to Dasein's authenticity. The word 'Ereignis' cannot be made plural. It determines the meaning of Being itself.
Heidegger and Plato Toward Dialogue. Edited by Catalin Partenie and Tom Rockmore, Evanston Illinois, Northwestern University Press, 2005.
- On the Purported Platonism of Heidegger's Rectoral Address, Theodore Kisiel
- Plato's Legacy in Heidegger's Two Readings of Antigone, Jacques Taminiaux
- Imprint: Heidegger's Interpretation of Platonic Dialectic in the Sophist Lectures (1924—25), Catalin Partenie
- Truth and Untruth in Plato and Heidegger, Michael Inwood
- Heidegger and the Platonic Concept of Truth, Enrico Berti
- Amicus Plato magis amica veritas: Reading Heidegger in Plato's Cave, Maria del Carmen Paredes
- Heidegger on Truth and Being, Joseph Margolis
- With Plato into the Kairos before the Kehre: On Heidegger's Different Interpretations of Plato, Johannes Fritsche
- Remarks on Heidegger's Plato, Stanley Rosen
- Heidegger's Uses of Plato and the History of Philosophy, Tom Rockmore
These essays examine Heidegger's interpretation of Plato in his lectures on the dialogs The Sophist, Theaetetus, and The Republic, along with Heidegger's remarks on Plato and his concept of truth, with comparison to Aristotle in several places. The essays by Kisiel, Fritsche, and Rockmore will be of interest to those following the debate on Heidegger's politics.
Reviews: Catherine ZuckertMegan Halteman Zwart
Heidegger and Practical Philosophy. Edited by François Raffoul and David Pettigrew, Albany, State University of New York Press, 2002.
Part I. Heidegger and Practical Philosophy
- Free Thinking, John Sallis
- The Interpretation of Aristotle's Notion of Aretê in Heidegger's First Courses, Jacques Taminiaux
- Freedom, Finitude, and the Practical Self: The Other Side of Heidegger's Appropiation of Kant, Frank Schalow
- Hier ist kein warum: Heidegger and Kant's Practical Philosophy, Jacob Rogozinski
Part II. Heidegger and Ethics
- Heidegger's "Originary Ethics", Jean-Luc Nancy
- The Call of Conscience: The Most Intimate Alterity, Françoise Dastur
- The "Play of Transcendence" and the Question of Ethics, Jean Greisch
- "Homo prudens", Miguel de Beistegui
Part III. The Question of the Political
- In the Middle of Heidegger's Three Concepts of the Political, Theodore Kisiel
- The Baby and the Bath Water: On Heidegger and Political Life, Dennis J. Schmidt
- Heidegger's Practical Politics: Of Time and the River, Charles E. Scott
- Heidegger and Arendt: The Birth of Political Action and Speech, Peg Birmingham
Part IV. Responsibility, Being-With, and Community
- Heidegger and the Origins of Responsibility, François Raffoul
- Reading Heidegger Responsibly: Glimpses of Being in Dasein's Development, David Wood
- The Community of Those Who Are Going to Die, Walter Brogan
- Heidegger and the Question of Empathy, Lawrence J. Hatab
Part V. Heidegger and the Contemporary Ethos
- Nihilism and Its Discontents, Thomas Sheehan
- Is There an Ethics for the "Atomic Age"?, Pierre Jacerme
- Praxis and Gelassenheit: The "Practice" of the Limit, Andrew Mitchell
- Psychoanalytic Praxis and the Truth of Pain, William J. Richardson
Heidegger and Praxis. Edited by Thomas J. Nenon, Memphis, Volume XXVIII Supplement of The Southern Journal of Philosophy, 1990.
- The Question of Human Freedom in the Later Heidegger, Michel Haar, response from Kathleen Wright
- The Familiar and the Strange: On the Limits of Praxis in the Early Heidegger, Joseph P. Fell, response from Dennis J. Schmidt
- Dasein's Disclosedness, John Haugeland, response from Mark Okrent
- On the Ordering of Things: Being and Power in Heidegger and Foucault, Hubert L. Dreyfus, response from Ron Bruzina
- Truth as Disclosure: Art, Language, History, Charles Guignon, response from Thomas J. Nenon
- Heidegger's Destruction of Phronesis, Robert Bernasconi, response from Walter Brogan
- Thinking, Poetry and Pain, John D. Caputo
- The Limitations of Heidegger's Ontological Aestheticism, Michael E. Zimmerman
Heidegger and Psychology. Edited by Keith Hoeller, Seattle, Washington, Review of Existential Psychology & Psychiatry, 1988.
- Martin Heidegger's Zollikon Seminars, Medard Boss
- Daseinsanalysis and Freud's Unconscious, Joseph J. Kockelmans
- Befindlichkeit: Heidegger and the Philosophy of Psychology, Eugene T. Gendlin
- Madness and the Poet, Jeffner Allen
- Psychotherapy: Being One and Being Many, Charles E. Scott
- The Mirror Inside: The Problem of the Self, William J. Richardson
- The Opening of Vision: Seeing Through the Veil of Tears, David Michael Levin
- Phenomenology, Psychology, and Science, Keith Hoeller
- The Place of the Unconscious in Heidegger, William J. Richardson
- A Bibliography on Martin Heidegger For the Behavioral Scientists, François H. Lapointe
Heidegger and Rhetoric. Edited Daniel M. Gross and Ansgar Kemman, Albany, State University of New York Press, 2005.
- Introduction: Being-Moved: The Pathos of Heidegger's Rhetorical Ontology, Daniel M. Gross
- Heidegger as Rhetor: Hans-Georg Gadamer Interviewed by Ansgar Kemmann
- Hermeneutic Phenomenology as Philology, Mark Michalski
- A Matter of the Heart: Epideictic Rhetoric and Heidegger's Call of Conscience, Michael J. Hyde
- Alltäglichkeit, Timefulness, in the Heideggerian Program, Nancy S. Struever
- Rhetorical Protopolitics in Heidegger and Arendt, Theodore Kisiel
- Heidegger's Restricted Conception of Rhetoric, Otto Pöggeler
- Selected Bibliography: Heidegger and Rhetoric
Heidegger's deepest engagement with rhetoric was in his summer semester 1924 class on "Fundamental ideas in Aristotelian philosophy" at Marburg, published as GA 18. The central text used in the course was Aristotle's Rhetoric II. The essays in this book mainly center on that lecture.
In his Introduction Gross argues that this lecture course contains Heidegger's most substantial enagement in political philosophy, and that Heidegger's study of Aristotle's discussion of rhetoric provided him with the insights that lead to Being and Time, but were never discussed explicitly again.
According to Heidegger's reading of Aristotle, Being-with-one-another turns out to be only one way of being among many—living and nonliving, human and nonhuman. The shared ontology of all Being, claims Heidegger, is grounded in the categories of Aristotle's Physics....What we share with things of all sorts is body-in-movement, a movement characterized by pathos. Heidegger sees this as one of Aristotle's most profound insights into the nature of rhetoric: Being-moved—the heart of rhetorical thought—necessarily exceeds the rational psyche because people have bodies of a certain sort. We are there, we grow and decompose, we can be damaged or excited, mobilized or dispersed....Being-moved in a human way is thus a continuous function of physiology and shared minds. What we have here is "embodied philosophy" at its most literal.
The interview with Gadamer, and the three essays that follow, explore various aspects of the lecture course, while Kisiel's essay places it in its historical context. Finally, Pöggeler's essay explores the place of rhetoric over Heidegger's entire career.
Heidegger and the Earth Essays in Environmental Philosophy. Second edition. Edited by Ladelle McWhorter and Gail Stenstad, University of Toronto Press, 2009.
- Guilt as Management Technology: A Call to Heideggerian Reflection, Ladelle McWhorter
- Heidegger and Ecology, Hanspeter Padrutt
- Earth-Thinking and Transformation, Kenneth Maly
- Singing the Earth, Gail Stenstad
- Call of the Earth: Endowment and (Delayed) Response, Robert Mugerauer
- The Word's Silent Spring: Heidegger and Herder on Animality and the Origin of Language, Tom Greaves
- Environmental Management in the 'Age of the World Picture', Dennis Skocz
- Humanity as Shepherd of Being: Heidegger's Philosophy and the Animal Other, Donald Turner
- The Path of a Thinking, Poeticizing Building: The Strange Uncanniness of Human Being on Earth, Steven Davis
- There Where Nothing Happens: The Poetry of Space in Heidegger and Arellano, Remmon E. Barbaza
- Meeting Place, Thomas Davis
- Eating Ereignis, or: Conversation on a Suburban Lawn, Ladelle McWhorter and Gail Stenstad
- Down-to-Earth Mystery, Gail Stenstad
McWhorter's essay serves as an introduction of the distinction between technological calculative thinking and reflective thinking. Padrutt's paper from 1992, when the original edition of this book was published, is a classic paper of this field of study. It's translated by Kenneth Maly, who provides valuable footnotes and who also wrote the next paper, on how reflective thinking can be tranformative. Stenstad's "Singing the Earth" extends Maly's thinking, going further along the path of thinking man's belonging with the earth. Mugerauer's essay explores the contributions of Jean-Luc Marion's work on giveness.
The next three essays are more specifically on animals. The first by Greaves explores their distinction from humans and how that is reflected in language. Skocz reflects on the use of information systems to study or manage animals. Turner examines the ethical dimensions of Heidegger's thinking beyond Heidegger's own considerations of animals.
The third section's essays are about dwelling on the earth. Davis uses Heidegger's interpretation of Sophocles' Antigone to discuss man's uncanniness and homelessness. Barbaza finds an opening in Juan Arellano's painting Cloudy Day, while Davis uses Wendell Berry's Home Economics and Der Feldweg. McWhorter and Stenstad have a dialogue on food and our ignorance about how it arrives on our table from the earth. Finally Stensted tackles how to overcome our feelings of helplessness when we witness the destruction of the earth, through the opening to thinking in Contributions to Philosophy.
Heidegger and The Greeks Interpretive Essays. Edited by Drew A. Hyland and John Panteleimon Manoussakis, Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 2006.
- First of All Came Chaos, Drew A. Hyland
- Contributions to the Coming-to-Be of Greek Beginnings: Heidegger's Inceptive Thinking , Claudia Baracchi
- The Intractable Interrelationship of Physis and Techne, Walter A. Brogan
- Translating Innigkeit: The Belonging Together of the Strange, Peter Warnek
- Heidegger's Philosophy of Language in an Aristotelian Context: Dynamis Meta Logou, Günter Figal
- Toward the Future of Truth, William J. Richardson
- What We Owe the Dead, Dennis J. Schmidt
- Beyond or Beneath Good and Evil: Heidegger's Purification of Aristotle's Ethics, Francisco J. Gonzalez
- Back to the Cave: A Platonic Rejoinder to Heideggerian Postmodernism, Gregory Fried
- Plato's Other Beginning, John Sallis
At one time, not so long ago, studying Greek philosophers had become a deadly dull affair. What the Greeks had done was important to the foundations and the story of philsophy, yet long ago. It was, of course, important to tell and learn this history, but the important stuff lay ahead of the Greeks, with the thinkers that had built on the work their works, through succeeding generations, to the end of the path, to where the present day philosphers were clearing new paths. The problem was that contemporary philosophers weren't making much headway. They had come to a place where they spoke specialized languages to themselves, discussing matters divorced from real concerns for thinking beings and the world they lived. And the Greek history was just something to be repeated to the next generation, so that they might understand the map that lead to the place philsophy was at. Then along came Heidegger, who began to ask anew the questions the Greeks had asked themselves, thinking through those questions again, yet in a new way, knowing the map of where philosophy had reached, and folding the insights that gave back into the questions the Greeks had asked. Asking the questions in a new ways. Ways that revealed new forks in the ancient paths; new paths to think through. Paths that lead to new places for philosophy to think, and be relevant and exciting again.
This collection carries on the reexamination of the Greeks' thinking that was started by Heidegger, and has been carried on by original thinkers in books such as Heidegger and Plato, The Presocratics after Heidegger, and many other essays scattered through the vast secondary that has followed the new paths pointed and hinted at in Heidegger's thinking. Drew A. Hyland looks for the ontological difference in the Greek beginning. Claudia Baracchi looks for the positive and negative turns, from affirmation to oblivion, and back. Walter Brogan teases out how correctness and creativity work together and differently, pulling in different directions, and complementing each other, both disclosing truth. Peter Warnek looks into how strangeness guides the work of translation, teasing out differences and bringing thinkers together. Günter Figal examines Heidegger on Aristotle on how speaking gathers differences together to say something new. William Richardson traces revelation from the Greeks through Heidegger to Lacan. Dennis Schmidt reads the Greeks on death, and what the anxiety around it reveals about the body's role. Francisco Gonzalez critically follows Heidegger reading of Aristotle's Ethics in the 1924 lecture course, possibly the most discussed lectures that remains to be translated. Gregory Fried discusses the tensions between seeking and holding knowledge via the allegory of the cave. Finally, John Sallis, also reads that allegory, and how different paths lead from it.
Heidegger and The Quest For Truth. Edited by Manfred A. Frings, Chicago, Quandrangle Books, 1968.
- Introduction, Manfred S. Frings
- A Letter From Heidegger, with Commentary, W. J. Richardson, S.J.
- Truth, Process, and Creature in Heidegger's Thought, John M. Anderson
- The Critique of Subjectivity and Cogito in the Philosophy of Heidegger, Paul Ricoeur
- The Question of Ethics in the Thought of Martin Heidegger, Bernard J. Boelen
- Rethinking Metaphysics, Calvin O. Schrag
- On the Essence of Technique, A. F. Lingis
- Heidegger and Symbolic Logic, Albert Borgmann
- Thanks-giving: The Completion of Thought, Joseph J. Kockelmans
- In-the-World and On-the-Earth: A Heideggerian Interpretation, F. Joseph Smith.
In his essay Paul Ricoeur writes about Heidegger's response in the Letter on Humanism to Jean Beaufret's question about the possible relationship between ontology and ethics.
[T]he essence of fundamental activity, for Heidegger, is not to be practical or effective, but to "fulfill"—that is, "to unfold something into the fullness of its Being." "Fundamental thinking," says Heidegger, "fulfills the relation of Being to the essence of man"; it lets Being "be." In other words, in fundamental thinking the Ereignis, the "ev-ent," the dynamic emergence of Being maintains the initiative. It is an activity of the homo humanus, and activity that transcends the "merely human," a thinking of Being, in which the genitive "of Being" is at once both "subjective" and "objective." Fundamental thinking is an activity that has no "results," no "effects," it produces nothing within the context of ontic efficacity. In Heidegger's own words: "Fundamental thought is sufficient unto its own essence, insofar as it is." Consequently, fundamental thinking does not provide us with any rules or directions for our practical life; it does not present us with any norms for moral action.
Heidegger, Authenticity, and Modernity: Essays in Honor of Hubert L. Dreyfus - Volume 1. Edited by Mark Wrathall and Jeff Malpas, Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press, 2000
- Foreword, Richard Rorty
- Introduction, Mark Wrathall and Jeff Malpas
Part I: Philosophy and Authenticity
- Must We Be Inauthentic?, Taylor Carman
- The Significance of Authenticity, Randall Havas
- Truth and Finitude: Heidegger's Transcendental Existentialism, John Haugeland
- Philosophy and Authenticity: Heidegger's Search for a Ground for Philosophizing, Charles B. Guignon
Part II: Modernity, Self and the World
- Kierkegaard's Present Age and Ours, Alastair Hannay
- The End of Authentic Selfhood in the Postmodern Age?, Michael E. Zimmerman
- 'The end of metaphysics' and 'a new beginning', Michel Haar
- Nietszche and the "Masters of Truth": The Presocratics and Christ, Beatrice Han
- What is Dwelling? The Homelessness of Modernity and Worlding of the World, Julian Young
- Uncovering The Space of Disclosedness: Heidegger, Technology, and the Problem of Spatiality in Being and Time, Jeff Malpas
Part III: Heideggerian Encounters
- The Primacy of Practice and Assertoric Truth: Dewey and Heidegger, William D. Blattner
- Absorbed Coping, Husserl and Heidegger, Dagfinn Føllesdal
- Proofs and Presuppositions: Heidegger, Searle and the 'Reality' of the 'External' World, David R. Cerbone
- Intending the Intender (Or, Why Heidegger Isn't Davidson), Mark Okrent
Part IV: Responses
- Responses, Hubert L. Dreyfus
Heidegger, Coping, and Cognitive Science: Essays in Honor of Hubert L. Dreyfus - Volume 2 . Edited by Mark Wrathall and Jeff Malpas, Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press, 2000
- Foreword, Terry Winograd
- Introduction, Mark Wrathall and Jeff Malpas
Part I: Coping and Intenionality
- Coping and Its Contrasts, Joseph Rouse
- Coping with Others with Folk Psychology, Theodore R. Schatzki
- Practices, Practical Holism and Background Practices, David Stern
- The Limits of Phenomenology, John Searle
- Background Practices, Capacities, and Heideggerian Disclosure, Mark A. Wrathall
- What's Wrong With Foundationalism? Knowledge, Agency and World, Charles Taylor
Part II: Computers and Cognitive Science
- Context and Background: Dreyfus and Cognitive Science, Daniel Andler
- Grasping at Straws: Motor Intentionality and the Cognitive Science of Skilled Behavior?, Sean Kelly
- Four Kinds of Knowledge, Two (or Maybe Three) Kinds of Embodiment, and the Question of Artificial Intelligence, Harry Collins
- Semiartificial Intelligence, Albert Borgmann
Part III: "Applied Heidegger"
- Heidegger on Living Gods, Charles Spinosa
- Trusting, Robert C. Solomon
- Emotion Theory Reconsidered, George Downing
- Heideggerian Thinking and the Transformation of Business Practice, Fernando Flores
- The Quest for Control and the Possibilities of Care, Patricia Benner
Part IV: Responses
- Responses, Hubert L. Dreyfus
Reviews: Svend Brinkmann
Heidegger, Education, and Modernity. Edited by Michael A. Peters, Lanham, Maryland, Rowman & Littlefield, 2002
- Introduction, Michael A. Peters
- Heidegger on the Art of Teaching, edited and translated from the German by Valerie Allen and Ares D. Axiotis
- Truth, Science, Thinking and Distress, David E Cooper
- Martin Heidegger, Transcendence, and the Possibility of Counter-Education, Ilan Gur-Ze'ev
- The Origin: Education, Philosophy and a Work of Art, Paul Smeyers
- Comfortably Numb in the Digital Era: Man's Being as Standing-Reserve or Dwelling Silently, Bert Lambeir
- Heidegger on Ontological Education, or: How We Become What We Are, Iain Thomson
- Essential Heidegger: poetics of the unsaid, Paul Standish
- Enframing education, Patrick Fitzsimons
- Heidegger and Nietzsche: Nihilism and the Question of Value in relation to Education, F. Ruth Irwin
- Learning as Leavetaking and Homecoming, Padraig Hogan
- Education as a Form of the Poetic: A Heideggerian Approach to Learning and the Teacher-Pupil Relationship, Michael Bonnett
Heidegger, German Idealism, and Neo-Kantianism. Edited by Tom Rockmore, Humanity Books, 2000
Heidegger in the Twenty-First Century. Edited by Tziovanis Georgakis and Paul J. Ennis, Dordrecht, Springer, 2015
- The Ambiguity of Being, Andrew Haas
- Dasein as Transcendence in Heidegger and the Critique of Husserl, Dermot Moran
- The Self that Belongs to an Abyssal Ground: Reading Heidegger’s Beiträge zur Philosophie (Vom Ereignis), Niall Keane
- History and the Meaning of Life: On Heidegger’s Interpretations of Nietzsche’s 2nd Untimely Meditation, Ullrich Haase and Mark Sinclair
- The Ex-appropriation of Responsibility, François Raffoul
- Hearing Heidegger: Proximities and Readings, Sinéad Hogan
- Heidegger and International Development, Trish Glazebrook and Matt Story
- Did Homo erectus Dwell? Heidegger, Archaeology and the Future of Phenomenology, Philip Tonner
- The ‘New’ Heidegger, Babette Babich
Heidegger Reexamined has its own page.
Heidegger Studies Vol. 21 (2005) On Technicity, and Venturing the Leap: Questions Concerning the Godly, the Emotional and the Political. Edited by Parvis Emad, Friedrich-Wilhelm von Herrmann, Kenneth Maly, Pascal David, and Paola-Ludovika Coriando. Berlin, Germany, Duncker & Humblot, 2005
I. Texts from Heidegger's Nachlaß
- Die Neuzeit. "Die" Wissenschaft. Wissenschaft und Denken, Martin Heidegger
- Heidegger's Critique of Rilke: On the Venture and the Leap, V. L. Jennings
- Die Ursprungsordnung von Orten und mathematischen Räumen in Heideggers Vortrag "Bauen Wohnen Denken", G. Neumann
- L'Ouïe abasourdie. Remarques sur notre écoute de l'appel de l'Estre, J. Gedinat
- Heidegger and Carl Schmitt: The Historicity of the Political (Part Two), B. Radloff
- Heidegger in Polen, A. Przylebski
- Martin Heidegger et la question de l'autre. II. Le partage de l'être, H. France-Lanord
III. Essays in Interpretation
- Hermeneutic Phenomenology and Related Questions: the Emotional, the Political, and the Godly, T. Kalary
- Systematische Hermeneutik: Zu drei Abhandlungen von Friedrich-Wilhelm von Herrmann, P. Trawny
- Heidegger und die Philosophie der Neuzeit: Ein neues Buch von L. Messinese, G. Emad
- Heidegger Studies, 1985-2004: Index, G. Emad
IV. Update on the Gesamtausgabe
- List of Heidegger's Gesamtausgabe - (in German, English, French, Italian, and Spanish)
The first paper, Virginia Lyle Jennings's "Heidegger's Critique of Rilke: On the Venture and the Leap", uses the affinities to Rilke's concept of the venture as opening into Heidegger's leap into being. A leap described in the Contributions as a venture. Heidegger contrasts the security of the subject-object relation with Da-sein be-ing where "the human is ventured as watchman over that which is most worthy of questioning" (GA 65, p.161). To Heidegger an originary creativity was hidden at the beginning of metaphysics, "The result is this: creativity will be replaced at the start with activity. The ways and ventures of former creativity will be set up in the immensity of machination" (GA 65, p.29). To return to this original venturesome creativity, a thinker must make a leap.
Da-sein's leaping is a self-throwing of creative Da-sein, but Heidegger does not want to portray Da-sein as the author of its own being. The creative thinker does not figure out what Da-sein's task is; rather, the thinker experiences Da-sein's throwness. It only appears that hte leap into being is executed by Dasein. In fact, being cannot be determined by thinking. The leap, rather, first allows Dasein to exist as the clearing. Being is not created by a "subject;" rather, Da-sein, as the overcoming of all subjectivity, springs from out of the essence of being. In this way the leap is not willed by Dasein. Heidegger's venture is associated with a will which is not grounded in a subject, bt which stands in the space (the Da) into which being project itself[.] P. 31
Thomas Kalary's "Hermeneutics Phenomenology and Related Questions" essay is a review of six books. One, Friedrish-Wilhelm v. Hermann's Hermeneutik und Reflexion is a study of both Husserl's reflective phenomenology and Heidegger's hermeneutic phenomenology. This book uses their books as primary sources, concentrating on the KNS lectures, the first lecture course at Marburg and section 8 of B&T in Heidegger's case. The appearance of Ereignis in KNS is examined in some detail:
The importance of von Herrmann's elucidation of the distinction between lived-experience as "a process" and "a making ones own" (Er-eignis) as used by Heidegger in the KNS lecture-course cannot be over-emphasized particularly in today's context where the number of "Heidegger Scholars" is on the increase who see the Heideggerian usage of Ereignis from the thirties onwards as a return to the Ereignis of the KNS lecture-course. ... Ereignis...is a concept that determines the essential structure of lived-experience, it is not what is usually called "event." The essential character of lived-experience is that I experience it as my own in that I myself make it my own which is possible when the lived-experience comes to pass according to its ownmost. Until now lived-experience was only a theme of the reflective objectification which concealed this character of "making ones own." Only the a-theoretical, hermeneutic understanding gains an access to this character of lived-experience. The "-eignis" has the meaning of "own" and "ownmost" but not the meaning of "the ownhood." Heidegger refers to what is ownmost to life and lived-experience with the word "eignis." Lived-experiences are Er-eignisse. The "Er-" of "Er-eignis" is the same as the "Er-" of "Er-lebnis," meaning originary, inceptual. The originary life as lived-experience is Er-eignis because it lives from out of its own. I unfold my lived-experiences from out of what is life's own. This is nothing but what Heidegger later calls existence as the being of Dasein. This early concept of Ereignis in the sense of what is ownmost to life and lived-experience has to be differentiated from the being-historical concept of Ereignis that Heidegger introduces in the thirties. There, in the being-historical thinking, Er-eignis stands for the belonging-together of en-owning throwing-forth of being and the en-owned projecting-open of Dasein. In being-historical thinking "eignis" means so much as "ownhood." From out of the enowning throwing forth, the being of man as enowned projecting open becomes the ownhood of the enowning truth of being. Thus it amounts to a great misinterpretation to assume that the being-historical thinking takes off from the "Er-eignis-concept" of KNS. P. 138
Heidegger The Man and the Thinker. Edited by Thomas Sheehan, Chicago, Precedent Publishing, 1981.
- Preface and Introduction: Heidegger, the Project and the Fulfillment, Thomas Sheehan
- Heidegger's Early Years: Fragments for a Philosophical Biography, Thomas Sheehan
- A Recollection (1957), Martin Heidegger, translated by Hans Seigfried
- Letter to Rudolf Otto (1919), Edmund Husserl
- Why Do I Stay in the Provinces? (1934), Martin Heidegger
- Heidegger and the Nazis, Karl A. Moehling
- "Only a God Can Save Us": The Spiegel Interview (1966), Martin Heidegger, translated by William J. Richardson
- The Pathway (1947-1948), Martin Heidegger, translated by Thomas F. O'Meara
- Seeking and Finding: The Speech at Heidegger's Burial, Bernhard Welte
- Heidegger's Way Through Phenomenology to the Thinking of Being, William J. Richardson, S.J.
- Toward the Topology of Dasein, Theodore Kisiel
- Into the Clearing, John Sallis
- Heidegger's Model of Subjectivity: A Polanyian Critique, Robert E. Innis
- Reality and Resistance: On Being and Time, Section 43, Max Scheler
- Heidegger on Transcendence and Intentionality: His Critique of Scheler, Parvis Emad
- In Memory of Max Scheler (1928), Martin Heidegger
- Heidegger and Metaphysics, Walter Biemel
- Metaphysics and the Topology of Being in Heidegger, Otto Pöggeler, translated by Parvis Emad
- Finitude and the Absolute: Remarks on Hegel and Heidegger, Jacques Taminiaux
- The Poverty of Thought: A Reflection on Heidegger and Eckhart, John D. Caputo
- Beyond "Humanism": Heidegger's Understanding of Technology, Michael E. Zimmerman
- Heidegger and Marx: A Framework for Dialogue, David Schweickart
- Principles Precarious: On the Origin of the Political in Heidegger, Reiner Schürmann
- Heidegger's Philosophy of Art, Sandra Lee Bartky
- Heidegger: Translations in English, 1949-1977, H. Miles Groth
- Heidegger: Secondary Literature in English, 1929-1977, H. Miles Groth
Unless noted otherwise, translations are by Thomas Sheehan.
Heidegger toward the Turn Essays on the Work of the 1930s. Edited by James Risser, Albany, State University of New York Press, 1999.
- Tuned to Accord: On Heidegger's Concept of Truth, Rodolphe Gasché
- Heidegger's Revolution: An Introduction to An Introduction to Metaphysics, John D. Caputo
- Heidegger and 'The' Greeks: History, Catastrophe, and Community, Dennis J. Schmidt
- The Greatness of the Work of Art, Robert Bernasconi
- Heidegger's Freiburg Version of the Origin of the Work of Art, Françoise Dastur
- Thinking and Poetizing in Heidegger and in Hölderlin's 'Andenken', Hans-Georg Gadamer
- Heidegger, Hölderlin, and Sophoclean Tragedy, Véronique M. Fóti
- Heidegger's Turn to Germanien—a Sigetic Venture, Wilhelm S. Wurzer
- The Question of Ethics in Heidegger's Account of Authenticity, Charles E. Scott
- Heidegger on Values, Jacques Taminiaux
- Ultimate Double Binds, Reiner Schürmann
- Contributions to Life, David Farrell Krell
- Empty Time and Indifference to Being, Michel Haar
- Heimat: Heidegger on the Threshold, Will McNeill
After discussing Heidegger's lecture on the origin of the work of art Françoise Dastur concludes with Ereignis.
[F]or Heidegger, the work of art does not connect matter and spirit as seperated domains, but initiates the conflict of world and earth, i.e., opens the free play (Spielraum) into which human existence becomes possible—what Heidegger calls the There. The difficulty for us in trying not to think the duality of world and earth as a new form of the ancient metaphysical duality of matter and spirit. The difference between these two dualities is a mere difference in temporality: metaphysics was and remains metaphysics of presence, but the thinking to come should be the thinking of the becoming or happening of truth, i.e., of the Ereignis.
Heidegger's HeritageRevista Portuguesa da Filosofia, Tomo LIX Fasciculo 4, Braga, 2003.
- Heidegger's Heritage, Daniel O. Dahlstrom
- A Flight of God, Anthony W. Bartlett
- Being, Opened-ness, and Unlimited Technology, Thomas Sheehan
The Sheehan piece is also entitled "Ten Theses on Heidegger". The ten are:
1.Das Sein = das "ist"
2. For Heidegger die Sache selbst is not Sein but that which makes possible the phenomenological occurrence of Sein.
3.die Sache selbst = die Welt, die Lichtung, das Da, etc.
4.Welt/Lichtung/Da occurs only with and as Da-sein, our apriori opened-ness.
5. Thus, in one formulation die Sache selbst is the apriori (= always already) opened-ness of the open-that-we-are, which makes possible all takings-as and attributions of "is."
6. Heidegger scholarship should abandon the word "Sein" as a marker for die Sache selbst.
7. What brings about Welt/Lichtung/Da is human finitude - the hidden, withdrawn lack that generates the open.
8. What Heidegger calls Seinsvergessenheit is the forgottenness not of Sein but what makes possible Sein and Seinsverständnis.
9. The intrinsically hidden lack/finitude that is responsible for the apriori opened-ness of the open guarantees both the groundlessness and the in-principle unlimitedness of our ability to take-things-as — for example, in theoretical-scientific knowing.
10. The in-principle unlimitedness of takings-as and occurrences-of-being likewise makes possible unlimited technology.
die Sache selbst: the things themselves
Seinsvergessenheit: the forgetfulness of being
Seinsverständnis: the comprehension of the being
Hermeneutics and Praxis. Edited by Robert Hollinger, Notre Dame, Indiana, University of Notre Dame Press, 1985.
- The Happening of Tradition: The Hermeneutics of Gadamer and Heidegger, Theodore Kisiel
- Hermeneutics and Truth, David Ingram
- Holism and Hermeneutics, Hubert Dreyfus
- The Thought of Being and the Conversation of Mankind: The Case of Heidegger and Rorty, John D. Caputo
Kisiel's begins his essay by recalling the origins of hermeneutics and ties that term to Ereignis in his first paragraph:
[I]t was Heidegger who went even further and suggested that man's existence in the aporia of Being is hermeneutical through and through. Although his hermeneutic of existence is still linked with the phenomenological "method" of explicating the implicit structure of existence, this procedure itself is to be traced back and rooted in the more spontaneous process of human existence as a unique voyage of discovery which envelops all the minor revelations and major epiphanies of the meaning of existence. In Heidegger's terms, Dasein, human existence in its situation, stands in the "event of unconcealment," and accordingly understands. It is in this "event" then, that the heart of the matter of the hermeneutical is to be found.
A House Divided Comparing Anlytic and Continental Philosophy. Edited by C. G. Prado, New York, Humanity Books, 2003.
Essays by Richard Rorty, Barry Allen, Babette E. Babich, David Cerbone, Sharyn Clough, Jonathan Kaplan, Richard Matthews, C. G. Prado, Bjorn Torgrim Ramberg, Mike Sandbothe, Barry Stocker, and Edward Witherspoon.
- On the Analytic Continental Divide in Philosophy: Nietzsche's Lying Truth, Heidegger's Speaking Language, and Philosophy, Babette E. Babich
- Heidegger and Quine on the (Ir)Relevance of Logic for Philosophy, Richard Matthew
- Time, Synthesis, and the End of Metaphysics: Heidegger and Strawson on Kant, Barry Stocker
- Much Ado About The Nothing: Carnap and Heidegger on Logic and Metaphysics, Edward Witherspoon
Reviews: Samuel Wheeler
Interpreting Heidegger critical essays. Edited by Daniel O. Dahlstrom, Cambridge University Press, 2011.
The Later Heidegger and Theology. Edited by James M. Robinson and John B. Cobb, Jr., New York, Harper & Row, 1963.
- The German Discussion of the Later Heidegger, James M. Robinson
- What Is Systematic Theology?, Heinrich Ott
- Advocatus Dei - Advocatus Hominis et Mundi, Arnold B. Come
- Theology as Ontology and as History, Carl Michalson
- The Understanding of Theology in Ott and Bultmann, Schubert M. Ogden
- Is the Later Heidegger Relevant for Theology?, John B. Cobb, Jr.
- Response to the American Discussion, Heinrich Ott
Martin Heidegger Critical Assessments. Edited by Christopher Macann, New York, Routledge, 1992.
Volume I: Philosophy
- The beginning and the end of philosophy, Hans-Georg Gadamer
- Time and being', 1925-7, Thomas Sheehan
- The preliminary conception of phenomenology and of the problematic of truth in Being and Time, Jean-Franqois Courtine
- Genetic phenomenology: towards a reconciliation of transcendental and ontological phenomenology, Christopher Macann
- Heidegger's conception of space, Maria Villela-Petit
- Heidegger on time and being, Joseph J. Kockelmans
- The ekstatico-horizonal constitution of temporality, Françoise Dastur
- What did Heidegger mean by 'Essence'?, Alfons Grieder
- Theological resonances of Der Satz vom Grund, Joseph S. O'Leary
- Heidegger, hermeneutics and ontology, Reiner Wiehl
- Being as appropriation, Otto Pöggeler
- Way and method: hermeneutic phenomenology in thinking the history of being, Friedrich-Wilhelm von Herrmann
- Looking metaphysics in the face, Jean Greisch
- The power of revelation of affectivity according to Heidegger, Michel Henry
- An interpretation of Heidegger's Bremen lectures: towards a dialogue with his later thought, Köhei Mizoguchi
- The end of philosophy as the beginning of thinking, Samuel IJsseling
Volume II: History of Philosophy
- The mirror with the triple reflection, Marléne Zarader
- Reading and thinking: Heidegger and the hinting Greeks, Kenneth Maly
- Beyond being: Heidegger's Plato, Robert J. Dostal
- Dasein as praxis: the Heideggerian assimilation and the radicalization of the practical philosophy of Aristotle, Franco Volpi
- Meister Eckhart and the later Heidegger: the mystical element in Heidegger's thought, John D. Caputo
- Heidegger and Descartes, Jean-Luc Marion
- The 1929 debate between Cassirer and Heidegger, Pierre Aubenque
- Hermeneutics in theory and practice, Christopher Macann
- The dialogue between Heidegger and Hegel, Denise Souche-Dagues
- The last thinker of the West, David Farrell Krell
- Critical remarks on the Heideggerian reading of Nietzsche, Michel Haar
- Heidegger and the principle of phenomenology, Klaus Held
- The question of being and transcendental phenomenology: reflections on Heidegger's relationship to Husserl, John D. Caputo
- Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty: Being-in-the-world with others?, Christina Schües
- Lask, Lukács, Heidegger: the problem of irrationality and the theory of categories, István M. Fehér
Volume III: Language
- Heidegger's conception of language in Being and Time, Jan Aler
- Language and silence: self-inquiry in Heidegger and Zen, Tetsuaki Kotoh
- Heidegger's language and the problems of translation, John Macquarrie
- Thinking more deeply into the question of translation: essential translation and the unfolding of language, Parvis Emad
- Heidegger's idea of truth, Ernst Tugendhat
- Heidegger on logic, J. N. Mohanty
- The essence of transcendence, Christopher Macann
- The language of the event: the event of language, Theodore Kisiel
- The transformation of language at another beginning, Robert Bernasconi
- Language and reversal, John Sallis
- Meaning adrift, John Sallis
- Poetry and language in Heidegger, Walter Biemel
- Heidegger and Holderlin: the over-usage of 'Poets in an impoverished time', Annemarie Gethmann-Siefert
- The flower of the mouth': Hölderlin's hint for Heidegger's thinking of the essence of language, Friedrich-Wilhelm von Herrmann
- Heidegger on metaphor and metaphysics, Joseph J. Kockelmans
- Heidegger and Ryle: two versions of phenomenology, Michael Murray
- Wittgenstein and Heidegger: language games and life forms, Karl-Otto Apel
Volume IV: Reverberations
- Heidegger and the thing, Jean-Pierre Faye
- Heidegger's Nazism and the French debate, Tom Rockmore
- Philosophy and politics: by way of Martin Heidegger, Joseph Margolis
- The shadow of this thinking, Dominique Janicaud
- Heidegger's Nietzsche and the Third Reich, Endre Kiss
- Heidegger and the Imperial question, Eliane Escoubas
- Fundamental ontology and political interlude: Heidegger as Rector of the University of Freiburg, István Fehér
- Authenticity and Heidegger's challenge to ethical theory, Douglas Kellner
- Who is Dasein? Towards an ethics of authenticity, Christopher Macann
- The place of the work of art in the age of technology, Kathleen Wright
- Heidegger's poetics: the question of mimemis, John Sallis
- Heidegger, well-being and madness, Charles E. Scott
- Heidegger, the possible and God, Richard Kearney
- Heidegger and the new images of science, Theodore Kisiel
- Heidegger and the physical sciences, Catherine Chevalley
- On the origin of nihilism - in view of the problem of technology and karma, Akihiro Takeichi
- Heidegger and Japanese thought: how much did he know and when did he know it?, Graham Parkes
- Does the saving power also grow? Heidegger's last paths, Otto Pöggeler
On Heidegger and Language. Edited by Joseph J. Kockelmans, Evanston, Northwestern University Press, 1972.
- Language, Meaning, and Ek-sistence, Joseph J. Kockelmans
- Heidegger's Conception of Language in Being and Time, Jan Aler
- Poetry and Language in Heidegger, Walter Biemel
- Heidegger's Topology of Being, Otto Pöggeler
- Thinking and Poetizing in Heidegger, Henri Birault
- Hermeneutic and Personal Structure of Language, Heinrich Ott
- Ontological Difference, Hermeneutics, and Language, Joseph J. Kockelmans
- The World in Another Beginning: Poetic Dwelling and the Role of the Poet, Werner Marx
- Heidegger's Language: Metalogical Forms of Thought and Grammatical Specialities, Erasmus Schöfer
- M. Heidegger's "Ontological Difference" and Language, Johannes Lohmann
Some of the papers were read at the International Colloquium On Heidegger's Conception and Language, 1969. As included are comments from the discussion. Apart from the authors of the papers, other participants were Thomas Langan, Stanley A. Rosen, James M. Edie, Laszlo Versényi, Theodore J. Kisiel, Calvin O. Schrag, and William J. Richardson.
Here's a excerpt on Ereignis from Biemel's paper.
Martin Heidegger and the Question of Literature. Edited by William V. Spanos, Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1999.
- The Age of the World View, Martin Heidegger, translated by Marjorie Grene
- Enownment, Albert Hofstadter
- Art and Truth in Raging Discord: Heidegger and Nietzsche on the Will To Power, David Farrell Krell
- The Owl and the Poet: Heidegger's Critique of Hegel, David Couzens Hoy
- The Postmodernity of Heidegger, Richard E. Palmer
- Heidegger: A Photographic Essay, Donald Bell
- Sein und Zeit: Implications for Poetics, Stanley Corngold
- Heidegger, Kierkegaard, and the Hermeneutic Circle: Toward a Postmodern Theory of Interpretation as Dis-closure, William V. Spanos
- Language and Silence: Heidegger's Dialogue with Georg Trakl, Karsten Harries
- Situating René Char: Hölderlin, Heidegger, Char and 'There is', Reiner Schürmann
- 'The Being of Language and the Language of Being': Heidegger and Modern Poetics, Alvin H. Rosenfeld
- Heidegger and Tragedy, Michael Gelvin
- From Heidegger to Derrida to Chance: Doubling and (Poetic) Language, Joseph N. Riddel
- Reading Heidegger: Jacques Derrida and Paul de Man, Frances C. Ferguson
- The Ontology of the Literary Sign: Notes toward a Heideggerian Revision of Semiology, Donald G. Marshall
- Attuned to Being: Heideggerian Music in Technological Society, Gerry Stahl
In his essay Hofstadter explains the translation of Ereignis as enownment.
If we were to give the most literal possible translation of das Ereignis it would have to consist of en-, -own-, and -ment: enownment. Enownment is the letting-be-own-to-one-another of whatever is granted belonging-together. It is the letting be married of any two or more — Being and time, Being and man, earth and world, earth and sky and mortals and divinities (the fourfold), bridge and river, automobile and speedway, buying and selling commodities, management and lobor — which can only be by means of belonging to one another. Enownment is not their belonging to one another, but what lets their belonging be. Sein is not Seiendheit.
Martin Heidegger Key Concepts. Edited by Bret W. Davis, Durham, UK, Acumen, 2010.
- Hermeneutics of Facticity, Theodore Kisiel
- Phenomenology and The Phenomenon, Günter Figal
- Dasein as Being-in-the-World, Timothy Stapleton
- Care and Authenticity, Charles Scott
- Being and Time, Richard Polt
- The Turn, Thomas Sheehan
- National Socialism and the German People, Charles Bambach
- Truth as Aletheia and the Clearing of Being, Daniel Dahlstrom
- The Work of Art, Jonathan Dronsfield
- Ereignis: The Event of Appropriation, Daniela Vallega-Neu
- The History of Being, Peter Warnek
- Will and Gelassenheit, Bret W. Davis
- Ge-stell: Enframing as The Essence of Technology, Hans Ruin
- Language and Poetry, John Lysaker
- The Fourfold, Andrew Mitchell
- Ontotheology and the Question of God(s), Ben Vedder
- Heidegger on Christianity and Divinity, Bret W. Davis
Here's some vocabulary from Sheehan's essay.
Reviews: Lee BraverSimon Scott
The Path of Archaic Thinking Unfolding the Work of John Sallis. Edited by Kenneth Maly, Albany, State University of New York Press, 1995.
- Tense, Jacques Derrida
- imagination, John Llewelyn
- Deconstructive Reinscription of Fundamental Ontology: The Task of Thinking after Heidegger, Parvis Emad
- Marginal Notes of Sallis's Peculiar Interpretation of Heidegger's Vom Wesen der Wahrheit, Walter Biemel
The Presocratics After Heidegger. Edited by David C. Jacobs, Albany, State University of New York Press, 1999.
- The Destruction of Logic: From Logos to Language, Jean-François Courtine
- The Place of the Presocratics in Heidegger's Beiträge zur Philosophie, Parvis Emad
- Keeping Homer's Word: Heidegger and the Epic of Truth, Michael Naas
- Kalypso: Homeric Concealments after Nietzsche, Heidegger, Derrida, and Lacan, David Farrell Krell
- Anaximander: A Founding Name in History, Michel Serres
- Doubles of Aneximenes, John Sallis
- What We Didn't See, Dennis J. Schmidt
- The Last, Undelivered Lecture (XII) from Summer Semester 1952, Martin Heidegger
- The Ontological Education of Parmenides, David C. Jacobs
- Heraclitus Studies, Hans-Georg Gadamer
- Appearing to Remember Heraclitus, Charles E. Scott
- Heraclitus, Philosopher of the Sign, Walter A. Brogan
- Empedocles and Tragic Thought: Heidegger, Hölderlin, Nietzsche, Véronique M. Fóti
Radical Phenomenology : essays in honor of Martin Heidegger. Edited by John Sallis, Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey, Humanities Press, 1978.
- Neuzeitliche Naturwissenschaft und Moderne Technik, Martin Heidegger
- Finding Heidegger, J.L. Mehta
- Thought and Issue in Heidegger, Werner Marx
- Zum Tode Martin Heideggers, Otto Pöggeler
- The Origins of Heidegger's Thought, John Sallis
- Heidegger and Husserl's Logical Investigations, Jacques Taminiaux
- The Question of Being and Transcendental Phenomenology: Reflections on Heidegger's Relationship to Husserl, John D. Caputo
- Destructive Retrieve and Hermeneutic Phenomenology in Being and Time, Joseph J. Kockelmans
- Death and Utopia: Towards a Critique of the Ethics of Satisfaction, Karsten Harries
- An Inquiry into Authenticity and Inauthenticity in Being and Time, Joan Stambaugh
- Heidegger and the New Images of Science, Theodore Kisiel
- Nothingness and Being: A Schelerian Comment, Manfred Frings
- Heidegger's Value-Criticism and Its Bearing on the Phenomenology of Values, Parvis Emad
- Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty: Interpreting Hegel, Hugh J. Silverman
- Nature and the Holy: On Heidegger's Interpretation of Hölderlin's Hymn "Wie wenn am Feiertage", Andre Schuwer
- Schlag der Liebe, Schlag des Todes: On a Theme in Heidegger and Trakl, David Farrell Krell
- Some Important Themes in Current Heidegger Research, Michael E. Zimmerman
- To Reawaken the Matter of Being: The New Edition of Sein und Zeit, Kenneth Maly
- Getting to the Topic: The New Edition of Wegmarken, Thomas Sheehan
Reading Heidegger: Commemorations. Edited by John Sallis, Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1993.
- Introduction, John Sallis
- Floundering in Determination, Rodolphe Gasché
- The Enigma of Everydayness, Michel Haar
- Deformatives: Essentially Other Than Truth, John Sallis
- Heidegger among the Doctors, William J. Richardson
- Nonbelonging/Authenticity, Charles E. Scott
- Justice and the Twilight Zone of Morality, Robert Bernasconi
- Where Deathless Horses Weep, David Farell Krell
- Categorical Intuition and the Understanding of Being in Husserl and Heidegger, Jiro Watanabe
- Being and Time and The Basic Problems of Phenomenology, Friedrich-Wilhelm Von Herrmann
- Reiterating the Temporal: Toward a Rethinking of Heidegger on Time, David Wood;
- Heidegger's Ear: Philopolemology (Geschlecht IV), Jacques Derrida, translated by John P. Leavey, Jr.
- Reading and Thinking: Heidegger and the Hinting Greeks, Kenneth Maly
- Phenomenology and/or Tautology, Jean-François Coutine
- Heidegger and Plato's Idea of the Good, Adriaan T. Peperzak
- Fundamental Moods and Heidegger's Critique of Contemporary Culture, Klaus Held
- Heidegger and Taoism, Shi-Ying Zhang
- Thinking More Deeply into the Question of Translation: Essential Translation and the Unfolding of Language, Parvis Emad
- Ontology of Language and Ontology of Translation in Heidegger, Eliane Escoubas
- Mimesis and Translation, Samuel Ijsseling
For other uses, see Heidegger (disambiguation).
Martin Heidegger (;German:[ˈmaɐ̯tiːn ˈhaɪdɛɡɐ]; 26 September 1889 – 26 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics. According to the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, he is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century". Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification".
His first and best known book, Being and Time (1927), though unfinished, is one of the central philosophical works of the 20th century. In the first division of the work, Heidegger attempted to turn away from "ontic" questions about beings to ontological questions about Being, and recover the most fundamental philosophical question: the question of Being, of what it means for something to be. Heidegger approached the question through an inquiry into the being that has an understanding of Being, and asks the question about it, namely, Human being, which he called Dasein ("being-there"). Heidegger argued that Dasein is defined by Care, its practically engaged and concernful mode of being-in-the-world, in opposition to Rationalist thinkers like René Descartes who located the essence of man in our thinking abilities. For Heidegger thinking is thinking about things originally discovered in our everyday practical engagements. The consequence of this is that our capacity to think cannot be the most central quality of our being because thinking is a reflecting upon this more original way of discovering the world. In the second division, Heidegger argues that human being is even more fundamentally structured by its Temporality, or its concern with, and relationship to time, existing as a structurally open "possibility-for-being". He emphasized the importance of Authenticity in human existence, involving a truthful relationship to our thrownness into a world which we are "always already" concerned with, and to our being-towards-death, the Finitude of the time and being we are given, and the closing down of our various possibilities for being through time.
Heidegger also made critical contributions to philosophical conceptions of truth, arguing that its original meaning was unconcealment, to philosophical analyses of art as a site of the revelation of truth, and to philosophical understanding of language as the "house of being." Heidegger's later work includes criticisms of technology's instrumentalist understanding in the Western tradition as "enframing," treating all of Nature as a "standing reserve" on call for human purposes. Heidegger is a controversial figure, largely for his affiliation with Nazism, as Rector of the University of Freiburg for 11 months, before his resignation in April 1934, for which he neither apologized nor publicly expressed regret.
Heidegger was born in rural Meßkirch, Baden-Württemberg, the son of Johanna (Kempf) and Friedrich Heidegger. Raised a Roman Catholic, he was the son of the sexton of the village church that adhered to the First Vatican Council of 1870, which was observed mainly by the poorer class of Meßkirch. His family could not afford to send him to university, so he entered a Jesuitseminary, though he was turned away within weeks because of the health requirement and what the director and doctor of the seminary described as a psychosomatic heart condition. Heidegger was short and sinewy, with dark piercing eyes. He enjoyed outdoor pursuits, being especially proficient at skiing.
Studying theology at the University of Freiburg while supported by the church, later he switched his field of study to philosophy. Heidegger completed his doctoral thesis on psychologism in 1914, influenced by Neo-Thomism and Neo-Kantianism, and in 1916 finished his venia legendi with a habilitation thesis on Duns Scotus directed by Heinrich Rickert and influenced by Edmund Husserl's phenomenology.
In the two years following, he worked first as an unsalaried Privatdozent then served as a soldier during the final year of World War I; serving "the last ten months of the war" with "the last three of those in a meteorological unit on the western front".
In 1923, Heidegger was elected to an extraordinary Professorship in Philosophy at the University of Marburg. His colleagues there included Rudolf Bultmann, Nicolai Hartmann, and Paul Natorp. Heidegger's students at Marburg included Hans-Georg Gadamer, Hannah Arendt, Karl Löwith, Gerhard Krüger, Leo Strauss, Jacob Klein, Gunther (Stern) Anders, and Hans Jonas. Following on from Aristotle, he began to develop in his lectures the main theme of his philosophy: the question of the sense of being. He extended the concept of subject to the dimension of history and concrete existence, which he found prefigured in such Christian thinkers as Saint Paul, Augustine of Hippo, Luther, and Kierkegaard. He also read the works of Dilthey, Husserl, and Max Scheler.
In 1927, Heidegger published his main work Sein und Zeit (Being and Time). When Husserl retired as Professor of Philosophy in 1928, Heidegger accepted Freiburg's election to be his successor, in spite of a counter-offer by Marburg. Heidegger remained at Freiburg im Breisgau for the rest of his life, declining a number of later offers, including one from Humboldt University of Berlin. His students at Freiburg included Arendt, Günther Anders, Hans Jonas, Karl Löwith, Charles Malik, Herbert Marcuse and Ernst Nolte.Emmanuel Levinas attended his lecture courses during his stay in Freiburg in 1928.
Heidegger was elected rector of the University on 21 April 1933, and joined the National Socialist German Workers' (Nazi) Party on 1 May. In his inaugural address as rector on 27 May he expressed his support of a German revolution, and in an article and a speech to the students from the same year he also supported Adolf Hitler. In November 1933, Heidegger signed the Loyalty Oath of German Professors to Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist State. He resigned the rectorate in April 1934, but remained a member of the Nazi Party until 1945 even though (as Julian Young asserts) the Nazis eventually prevented him from publishing.
According to historian Richard J. Evans, Heidegger was not only a member of the Nazi Party, but was enthusiastic about participating. He wanted to position himself as the philosopher of the Party, but the highly abstract nature of his work and the opposition of Alfred Rosenberg, who himself aspired to act in that position, limited Heidegger's role. His resignation from the rectorate owed more to his frustration as an administrator than to any principled opposition to the Nazis.
Heidegger's Black Notebooks, written between 1931 and 1941 and first published in 2014, contain several anti-semitic statements and have led to a re-evaluation of Heidegger's relation to Nazism.
In late 1946, as France engaged in épuration légale in its Occupation zone, the French military authorities determined that Heidegger should be blocked from teaching or participating in any university activities because of his association with the Nazi Party. The denazification procedures against Heidegger continued until March 1949 when he was finally pronounced a Mitläufer (the second lowest of five categories of "incrimination" by association with the Nazi regime). No punitive measures against him were proposed. This opened the way for his readmission to teaching at Freiburg University in the winter semester of 1950–51. He was granted emeritus status and then taught regularly from 1951 until 1958, and by invitation until 1967.
Heidegger married Elfride Petri on 21 March 1917, in a Catholic ceremony officiated by his friend Engelbert Krebs (de), and a week later in a Protestant ceremony in the presence of her parents. Their first son, Jörg, was born in 1919. Elfride then gave birth to Hermann (de) in 1920. Heidegger knew that he was not Hermann's biological father but raised him as his son. Hermann's biological father, who became godfather to his son, was family friend and doctor Friedel Caesar. Hermann was told of this at the age of 14. Hermann became a historian and would later serve as the executor of Heidegger's will.
Heidegger had a long romantic relationship with Hannah Arendt and a steamy affair (over many decades) with Elisabeth Blochmann, both students of his. Arendt was Jewish, and Blochmann had one Jewish parent, making them subject to severe persecution by the Nazi authorities. He helped Blochmann emigrate from Germany before the start of World War II and resumed contact with both of them after the war. Heidegger's letters to his wife contain information about several other affairs of his.
Heidegger spent much time at his vacation home at Todtnauberg, on the edge of the Black Forest. He considered the seclusion provided by the forest to be the best environment in which to engage in philosophical thought.
A few months before his death, he met with Bernhard Welte, a Catholic priest, Freiburg university professor and earlier correspondent. The exact nature of the conversation is not known, but what is known is that it included talk of Heidegger's relationship to the Catholic Church and subsequent Christian burial at which the priest officiated. Heidegger died on 26 May 1976, and was buried in the Meßkirch cemetery, beside his parents and brother.
Being, time, and Dasein
Heidegger's philosophy is founded on the attempt to conjoin what he considers two fundamental insights: the first is his observation that, in the course of over 2,000 years of history, philosophy has attended to all the beings that can be found in the world (including the world itself), but has forgotten to ask what Being itself is. Heidegger thought the presence of things for us is not their being, but merely them interpreted as equipment according to a particular system of meaning and purpose. For instance, when a hammer is efficiently used to knock in nails, we cease to be aware of it. This is termed "ready to hand", and Heidegger considers it an authentic mode, saying that the given ("past") has presence in an oversimplified way when reduced to possible future usefulness to us.
Heidegger claimed philosophy and science since ancient Greece had reduced things to their presence, which was a superficial way of understanding them. One crucial source of this insight was Heidegger's reading of Franz Brentano's treatise on Aristotle's manifold uses of the word "being", a work which provoked Heidegger to ask what kind of unity underlies this multiplicity of uses. Heidegger opens his magnum opus, Being and Time, with a citation from Plato's Sophist indicating that Western philosophy has neglected Being because it was considered obvious, rather than as worthy of question. Heidegger's intuition about the question of Being is thus a historical argument, which in his later work becomes his concern with the "history of Being", that is, the history of the forgetting of Being, which according to Heidegger requires that philosophy retrace its footsteps through a productive destruction of the history of philosophy.
The second intuition animating Heidegger's philosophy derives from the influence of Edmund Husserl, a philosopher largely uninterested in questions of philosophical history. Rather, Husserl argued that all that philosophy could and should be is a description of experience (hence the phenomenological slogan, "to the things themselves"). But for Heidegger, this meant understanding that experience is always already situated in a world and in ways of being. Thus Husserl's understanding that all consciousness is "intentional" (in the sense that it is always intended toward something, and is always "about" something) is transformed in Heidegger's philosophy, becoming the thought that all experience is grounded in "care". This is the basis of Heidegger's "existential analytic", as he develops it in Being and Time. Heidegger argues that describing experience properly entails finding the being for whom such a description might matter. Heidegger thus conducts his description of experience with reference to "Dasein", the being for whom Being is a question.
In Being and Time, Heidegger criticized the abstract and metaphysical character of traditional ways of grasping human existence as rational animal, person, man, soul, spirit, or subject. Dasein, then, is not intended as a way of conducting a philosophical anthropology, but is rather understood by Heidegger to be the condition of possibility for anything like a philosophical anthropology.Dasein, according to Heidegger, is care. In the course of his existential analytic, Heidegger argues that Dasein, who finds itself thrown into the world (Geworfenheit) amidst things and with others, is thrown into its possibilities, including the possibility and inevitability of one's own mortality. The need for Dasein to assume these possibilities, that is, the need to be responsible for one's own existence, is the basis of Heidegger's notions of authenticity and resoluteness—that is, of those specific possibilities for Dasein which depend on escaping the "vulgar" temporality of calculation and of public life.
The marriage of these two observations depends on the fact that each of them is essentially concerned with time. That Dasein is thrown into an already existing world and thus into its mortal possibilities does not only mean that Dasein is an essentially temporal being; it also implies that the description of Dasein can only be carried out in terms inherited from the Western tradition itself. For Heidegger, unlike for Husserl, philosophical terminology could not be divorced from the history of the use of that terminology, and thus genuine philosophy could not avoid confronting questions of language and meaning. The existential analytic of Being and Time was thus always only a first step in Heidegger's philosophy, to be followed by the "dismantling" (Destruktion) of the history of philosophy, that is, a transformation of its language and meaning, that would have made of the existential analytic only a kind of "limit case" (in the sense in which special relativity is a limit case of general relativity).
That Heidegger did not write this second part of Being and Time, and that the existential analytic was left behind in the course of Heidegger's subsequent writings on the history of being, might be interpreted as a failure to conjugate his account of individual experience with his account of the vicissitudes of the collective human adventure that he understands the Western philosophical tradition to be. And this would in turn raise the question of whether this failure is due to a flaw in Heidegger's account of temporality, that is, of whether Heidegger was correct to oppose vulgar and authentic time. There are also recent critiques in this regard that were directed at Heidegger's focus on time instead of primarily thinking about being in relation to place and space, and to the notion of dwelling, with connections too to architectural theory as impacted by phenomenology.
Being and Time
Main article: Being and Time
Being and Time (German title: Sein und Zeit), published in 1927, was Heidegger's first academic book. He had been under pressure to publish in order to qualify for Husserl's (to whom he dedicated the work) chair at the University of Freiburg and the success of this work ensured his appointment to the post.
In Being and Time, Heidegger investigates the question of Being by asking about the being for whom Being is a question. Heidegger names this being Dasein (see above), and he pursues his investigation through themes such as mortality, care, anxiety, temporality, and historicity. It was Heidegger's original intention to write a second half of the book, consisting of a "Destruktion" of the history of philosophy—that is, the transformation of philosophy by re-tracing its history—but he never completed this project.
Being and Time influenced many thinkers, including such existentialist thinkers as Jean-Paul Sartre (although Heidegger distanced himself from existentialism—see below).
Later works: The Turn
See also: Kehre
Heidegger's later works, beginning by 1930 and largely established by the early 1940s, seem to many commentators (e.g. William J. Richardson) to at least reflect a shift of focus, if not indeed a major change in his philosophical outlook, which is known as "the turn" (die Kehre). One way this has been understood is as a shift from "doing" to "dwelling" (Wohnen) and from Being and Time to Time and Being (This aspect had a particular influence on architectural theorists in their focus on place and space in thinking about dwelling. Such is the case with the work of Christian Norberg-Schulz and the philosopher-architect Nader El-Bizri.) However, others feel that this is to overstate the difference. For example, in 2011 Mark Wrathall argued that Heidegger pursued and refined the central notion of unconcealment throughout his life as a philosopher. Its importance and continuity in his thinking, Wrathall states, shows that he did not have a "turn". A reviewer of Wrathall's book stated: "An ontology of unconcealment [...] means a description and analysis of the broad contexts in which entities show up as meaningful to us, as well as the conditions under which such contexts, or worlds, emerge and fade."
Heidegger focuses less on the way in which the structures of being are revealed in everyday behavior, and more on the way in which behaviour itself depends on a prior "openness to being." The essence of being human is the maintenance of this openness. Heidegger contrasts this openness to the "will to power" of the modern human subject, which is one way of forgetting this originary openness.
Heidegger understands the commencement of the history of Western philosophy as a brief period of authentic openness to being, during the time of the pre-Socratics, especially Anaximander, Heraclitus, and Parmenides. This was followed, according to Heidegger, by a long period increasingly dominated by the forgetting of this initial openness, a period which commences with Plato, and which occurs in different ways throughout Western history.
Two recurring themes of Heidegger's later writings are poetry and technology. Heidegger sees poetry and technology as two contrasting ways of "revealing." Poetry reveals being in the way in which, if it is genuine poetry, it commences something new. Technology, on the other hand, when it gets going, inaugurates the world of the dichotomous subject and object, which modern philosophy commencing with Descartes also reveals. But with modern technology a new stage of revealing is reached, in which the subject-object distinction is overcome even in the "material" world of technology. The essence of modern technology is the conversion of the whole universe of beings into an undifferentiated "standing reserve" (Bestand) of energy available for any use to which humans choose to put it. Heidegger described the essence of modern technology as Gestell, or "enframing." Heidegger does not unequivocally condemn technology: while he acknowledges that modern technology contains grave dangers, Heidegger nevertheless also argues that it may constitute a chance for human beings to enter a new epoch in their relation to being. Despite this, some commentators have insisted that an agrarian nostalgia permeates his later work.
In a 1950 lecture he formulated the famous saying "Language speaks", later published in the 1959 essays collection Unterwegs zur Sprache, and collected in the 1971 English book Poetry, Language, Thought.
Heidegger's later works include Vom Wesen der Wahrheit ("On the Essence of Truth", 1930), Der Ursprung des Kunstwerkes ("The Origin of the Work of Art", 1935), Einführung in die Metaphysik ("Introduction to Metaphysics", 1935), Bauen Wohnen Denken ("Building Dwelling Thinking", 1951), and Die Frage nach der Technik ("The Question Concerning Technology", 1954) and Was heisst Denken? (What Is Called Thinking? 1954). Also Beiträge zur Philosophie (Vom Ereignis) (Contributions to Philosophy (From Enowning)), composed in the years 1936–38 but not published until 1989, on the centennial of Heidegger's birth.
Heidegger and the ground of History
Heidegger believed the Western world to be on a trajectory headed for total war, and on the brink of profound nihilism (the rejection of all religious and moral principles), which would be the purest and highest revelation of Being itself, offering a horrifying crossroads of either salvation or the end of metaphysics and modernity; rendering the West a wasteland populated by tool-using brutes, characterized by an unprecedented ignorance and barbarism in which everything is permitted.
He thought the latter possibility would degenerate mankind generally into scientists, workers and brutes; living under the last mantle of one of three ideologies, Americanism, Marxism or Nazism (which he deemed metaphysically identical, as avatars of subjectivity and institutionalized nihilism), and an unfettered totalitarian world technology. Supposedly, this epoch would be ironically celebrated, as the most enlightened and glorious in human history.
He envisaged this abyss to be the greatest event in the West's history because it would enable Humanity to comprehend Being more profoundly and primordially than the Pre-Socratics.
St. Augustine of Hippo
Recent scholarship has shown that Heidegger was substantially influenced by St. Augustine of Hippo and that Being and Time would not have been possible without the influence of Augustine's thought. Augustine's Confessions was particularly influential in shaping Heidegger's thought.
Augustine viewed time as relative and subjective, and that being and time were bound up together. Heidegger adopted similar views, e.g. that time was the horizon of Being: ' ...time temporalizes itself only as long as there are human beings.'
Aristotle and the Greeks
Heidegger was influenced at an early age by Aristotle, mediated through Catholic theology, medieval philosophy and Franz Brentano. Aristotle's ethical, logical, and metaphysical works were crucial to the development of his thought in the crucial period of the 1920s. Although he later worked less on Aristotle, Heidegger recommended postponing reading Nietzsche, and to "first study Aristotle for ten to fifteen years". In reading Aristotle, Heidegger increasingly contested the traditional Latin translation and scholastic interpretation of his thought. Particularly important (not least for its influence upon others, both in their interpretation of Aristotle and in rehabilitating a neo-Aristotelian "practical philosophy") was his radical reinterpretation of Book Six of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics and several books of the Metaphysics. Both informed the argument of Being and Time. Heidegger's thought is original in being an authentic retrieval of the past, a repetition of the possibilities handed down by the tradition.
The idea of asking about being may be traced back via Aristotle to Parmenides. Heidegger claimed to have revived the question of being, the question having been largely forgotten by the metaphysical tradition extending from Plato to Descartes, a forgetfulness extending to the Age of Enlightenment and then to modern science and technology. In pursuit of the retrieval of this question, Heidegger spent considerable time reflecting on ancient Greek thought, in particular on Plato, Parmenides, Heraclitus, and Anaximander, as well as on the tragic playwright Sophocles.
Heidegger's very early project of developing a "hermeneutics of factical life" and his hermeneutical transformation of phenomenology was influenced in part by his reading of the works of Wilhelm Dilthey.
Of the influence of Dilthey, Hans-Georg Gadamer writes the following: "As far as Dilthey is concerned, we all know today what I have known for a long time: namely that it is a mistake to conclude on the basis of the citation in Being and Time that Dilthey was especially influential in the development of Heidegger's thinking in the mid-1920s. This dating of the influence is much too late." He adds that by the fall of 1923 it was plain that Heidegger felt "the clear superiority of Count Yorck over the famous scholar, Dilthey." Gadamer nevertheless makes clear that Dilthey's influence was important in helping the youthful Heidegger "in distancing himself from the systematic ideal of Neo-Kantianism, as Heidegger acknowledges in Being and Time." Based on Heidegger's earliest lecture courses, in which Heidegger already engages Dilthey's thought prior to the period Gadamer mentions as "too late", scholars as diverse as Theodore Kisiel and David Farrell Krell have argued for the importance of Diltheyan concepts and strategies in the formation of Heidegger's thought.
Even though Gadamer's interpretation of Heidegger has been questioned, there is little doubt that Heidegger seized upon Dilthey's concept of hermeneutics. Heidegger's novel ideas about ontology required a gestalt formation, not merely a series of logical arguments, in order to demonstrate his fundamentally new paradigm of thinking, and the hermeneutic circle offered a new and powerful tool for the articulation and realization of these ideas.
There is disagreement over the degree of influence that Husserl had on Heidegger's philosophical development, just as there is disagreement about the degree to which Heidegger's philosophy is grounded in phenomenology. These disagreements centre upon how much of Husserlian phenomenology is contested by Heidegger, and how much this phenomenology in fact informs Heidegger's own understanding.
On the relation between the two figures, Gadamer wrote: "When asked about phenomenology, Husserl was quite right to answer as he used to in the period directly after World War I: 'Phenomenology, that is me and Heidegger'." Nevertheless, Gadamer noted that Heidegger was no patient collaborator with Husserl, and that Heidegger's "rash ascent to the top, the incomparable fascination he aroused, and his stormy temperament surely must have made Husserl, the patient one, as suspicious of Heidegger as he always had been of Max Scheler's volcanic fire."
Robert J. Dostal understood the importance of Husserl to be profound:
Heidegger himself, who is supposed to have broken with Husserl, bases his hermeneutics on an account of time that not only parallels Husserl's account in many ways but seems to have been arrived at through the same phenomenological method as was used by Husserl.... The differences between Husserl and Heidegger are significant, but if we do not see how much it is the case that Husserlian phenomenology provides the framework for Heidegger's approach, we will not be able to appreciate the exact nature of Heidegger's project in Being and Time or why he left it unfinished.
Daniel O. Dahlstrom saw Heidegger's presentation of his work as a departure from Husserl as unfairly misrepresenting Husserl's own work. Dahlstrom concluded his consideration of the relation between Heidegger and Husserl as follows:
Heidegger's silence about the stark similarities between his account of temporality and Husserl's investigation of internal time-consciousness contributes to a misrepresentation of Husserl's account of intentionality. Contrary to the criticisms Heidegger advances in his lectures, intentionality (and, by implication, the meaning of 'to be') in the final analysis is not construed by Husserl as sheer presence (be it the presence of a fact or object, act or event). Yet for all its "dangerous closeness" to what Heidegger understands by temporality, Husserl's account of internal time-consciousness does differ fundamentally. In Husserl's account the structure of protentions is accorded neither the finitude nor the primacy that Heidegger claims are central to the original future of ecstatic-horizonal temporality.
Heideggerians regarded Søren Kierkegaard as, by far, the greatest philosophical contributor to Heidegger's own existentialist concepts. Heidegger's concepts of anxiety (Angst) and mortality draw on Kierkegaard and are indebted to the way in which the latter lays out the importance of our subjective relation to truth, our existence in the face of death, the temporality of existence, and the importance of passionate affirmation of one's individual being-in-the-world.
Hölderlin and Nietzsche
Friedrich Hölderlin and Friedrich Nietzsche were both important influences on Heidegger, and many of his lecture courses were devoted to one or the other, especially in the 1930s and 1940s. The lectures on Nietzsche focused on fragments posthumously published under the title The Will to Power, rather than on Nietzsche's published works. Heidegger read The Will to Power as the culminating expression of Western metaphysics, and the lectures are a kind of dialogue between the two thinkers.
The fundamental differences between the philosophical delineations of Heidegger and Adorno can be found in their contrasting views of Hölderlin's poetical works and to a lesser extent in their divergent views on German romanticism in general. For Heidegger, Hölderlin expressed the intuitive necessity of metaphysical concepts as a guide for ethical paradigms, devoid of reflection. Adorno, on the other hand, pointed to the dialectic reflection of historical situations, the sociological interpretations of future outcomes, and therefore opposed the liberating principles of intuitive concepts because they negatively surpassed the perception of societal realities. Nevertheless, it was Heidegger's rationalization and later work on Hölderlin's poems as well as on Parmenides ("For to be aware and to be are the same," DK B 3) and his consistent understanding of Nietzsche's thought that formed the foundation of postmodernexistentialism.
This is also the case for the lecture courses devoted to the poetry of Friedrich Hölderlin, which became an increasingly central focus of Heidegger's work and thought. Heidegger grants to Hölderlin a singular place within the history of being and the history of Germany, as a herald whose thought is yet to be "heard" in Germany or the West. Many of Heidegger's works from the 1930s onwards include meditations on lines from Hölderlin's poetry, and several of the lecture courses are devoted to the reading of a single poem (see, for example, Hölderlin's Hymn "The Ister").
Heidegger and Eastern thought
Some writers on Heidegger's work see possibilities within it for dialogue with traditions of thought outside of Western philosophy, particularly East Asian thinking. Despite perceived differences between Eastern and Western philosophy, some of Heidegger's later work, particularly "A Dialogue on Language between a Japanese and an Inquirer", does show an interest in initiating such a dialogue. Heidegger himself had contact with a number of leading Japanese intellectuals, including members of the Kyoto School, notably Hajime Tanabe and Kuki Shūzō. It has also been claimed that a number of elements within Heidegger's thought bear a close parallel to Eastern philosophical ideas, particularly Zen Buddhism and Taoism. Reinhard May records Chang Chung-Yuan saying that "Heidegger is the only Western Philosopher who not only intellectually understands but has intuitively grasped Taoist thought." May sees great influence of Taoism and Japanese scholars in Heidegger's work, although this influence is not acknowledged by the author. He asserts: "The investigation concludes that Heidegger’s work was significantly influenced by East Asian sources. It can be shown, moreover, that in particular instances Heidegger even appropriated wholesale and almost verbatim major ideas from the German translations of Daoist and Zen Buddhist classics. This clandestine textual appropriation of non-Western spirituality, the extent of which has gone undiscovered for so long, seems quite unparalleled, with far-reaching implications for our future interpretation of Heidegger’s work."
Heidegger has been influential in research on the relationship between Western philosophy and the history of ideas in Islam, particularly for some scholars interested in Arabic philosophical medieval sources. These include the Lebanese philosopher and architectural theorist Nader El-Bizri, who, as well as focusing on the critique of the history of metaphysics (as an 'Arab Heideggerian'), also moves towards rethinking the notion of "dwelling" in the epoch of the modern unfolding of the essence of technology and Gestell, and realizing what can be described as a "confluence of Western and Eastern thought" as well. It is claimed that the works of counter-enlightenment philosophers such as Heidegger, along with Friedrich Nietzsche and Joseph de Maistre, influenced Iran's Shia Islamist scholars, notably Ali Shariati. A clearer impact of Heidegger in Iran is associated with thinkers such as Ahmad Fardid and Reza Davari Ardakani who have been closely associated with the unfolding of philosophical thinking in a Muslim modern theological legacy in Iran. This included the construction of the ideological foundations of the Iranian Revolution and modern political Islam in its connections with theology.
Heidegger and architecture
Main article: Phenomenology (architecture)
Heidegger's thought influenced some architectural theorists in a direct manner, or through an impact via his reflections on 'dwelling', the 'origin of the work of art', 'the essence of technology', and the unfolding of a broad interest in phenomenology within the contemporary circles of architectural theory. This is for instance evident in the works and profiles of theorists such as Christian Norberg-Schulz, Dalibor Vesely, Nader El-Bizri, Karsten Harries, Neil Leach, Adam Sharr, etc., within what is known as Architectural phenomenology and in contemporary architectural theory in general.
The Heidegger controversy
Main article: Heidegger and Nazism
Adolf Hitler was sworn in as Chancellor of Germany on January 30, 1933. Heidegger was elected rector of the University of Freiburg on April 21, 1933, and assumed the position the following day. On May 1, he joined the Nazi Party.
Heidegger delivered his inaugural address, the Rektoratsrede, on "Die Selbstbehauptung der Deutschen Universität" ("The Self-assertion of the German University") on 27 May.
His tenure as rector was fraught with difficulties from the outset. Some National Socialist education officials viewed him as a rival, while others saw his efforts as comical. Some of Heidegger's fellow National Socialists also ridiculed his philosophical writings as gibberish. He finally offered his resignation on 23 April 1934, and it was accepted on 27 April. Heidegger remained a member of both the academic faculty and of the Nazi Party until the end of the war.
Philosophical historian Hans Sluga wrote:
Though as rector he prevented students from displaying an anti-Semitic poster at the entrance to the university and from holding a book burning, he kept in close contact with the Nazi student leaders and clearly signaled to them his sympathy with their activism.
In 1945, Heidegger wrote of his term as rector, giving the writing to his son Hermann; it was published in 1983:
The rectorate was an attempt to see something in the movement that had come to power, beyond all its failings and crudeness, that was much more far-reaching and that could perhaps one day bring a concentration on the Germans' Western historical essence. It will in no way be denied that at the time I believed in such possibilities and for that reason renounced the actual vocation of thinking in favor of being effective in an official capacity. In no way will what was caused by my own inadequacy in office be played down. But these points of view do not capture what is essential and what moved me to accept the rectorate.
Treatment of Husserl
Beginning in 1917, German-Jewish philosopher Edmund Husserl championed Heidegger's work, and helped him secure the retiring Husserl's chair in Philosophy at the University of Freiburg.
On 6 April 1933, the Reichskommissar of Baden Province, Robert Wagner, suspended all Jewish government employees, including present and retired faculty at the University of Freiburg. Heidegger's predecessor as Rector formally notified Husserl of his "enforced leave of absence" on 14 April 1933.
Heidegger became Rector of the University of Freiburg on 22 April 1933. The following week the national Reich law of 28 April 1933, replaced Reichskommissar Wagner's decree. The Reich law required the firing of Jewish professors from German universities, including those, such as Husserl, who had converted to Christianity. The termination of the retired professor Husserl's academic privileges thus did not involve any specific action on Heidegger's part.
Heidegger had by then broken off contact with Husserl, other than through intermediaries. Heidegger later claimed that his relationship with Husserl had already become strained after Husserl publicly "settled accounts" with Heidegger and Max Scheler in the early 1930s.
Heidegger did not attend his former mentor's cremation in 1938. In 1941, under pressure from publisher Max Niemeyer, Heidegger agreed to remove the dedication to Husserl from Being and Time (restored in post-war editions).
Heidegger's behavior towards Husserl has evoked controversy. Arendt initially suggested that Heidegger's behavior precipitated Husserl's death. She called Heidegger a "potential murderer." However, she later recanted her accusation.
In 1939, only a year after Husserl's death, Heidegger wrote in his Black Notebooks: "The more original and inceptive the coming decisions and questions become, the more inaccessible will they remain to this [Jewish] 'race'. (Thus, Husserl’s step toward phenomenological observation, and his rejection of psychological explanations and historiological reckoning of opinions, are of enduring importance—yet it never reaches into the domains of essential decisions", seeming to imply that Husserl's philosophy was limited purely because he was Jewish.