Ap Language Argument Essay Powerpoint

Presentation on theme: "AP English Language and Composition"— Presentation transcript:

1 AP English Language and Composition
The Argument EssayAP English Language and Composition

2 Notes from MHR Writing Powerful Arguments
Take a stand/Claim – sell your view or positionConsider:What exactly is your goal? Your stand?Who is your audience?What is your attitude? Tone?Do you develop and organize grounds (evidence)? See models

3 Are you setting up a “three bowler”?
Have you scrutinized your own position?Did you consider warrants? How does evidence connect to thesis (claim)? Friendly vs. hostile audienceDo you acknowledge and refute opposing viewpoints? Counter argumentsDo you avoid unfair emotional appeals and logical fallacies?

4 The Argument PromptYou will be given a statement, excerpt, quotation, or anecdote and you will be asked to either:defend, challenge, or qualify the assertion.support, oppose, or qualify the assertion.agree with, disagree with, or qualify the assertion.

5 Argument Prompt continued…
What does it mean to qualify an assertion?Agree with some and disagree with other parts of the textLegality of Abortion – yes or no? Under what conditions?

6 How do you argue a point? Present the issue/situation/problem.
State your assertion/claim/thesis.Support your claim with facts, details, personal experience, and examples to name a few.Acknowledge and respond to real or possible opposing views.Make your final comment or summary of the evidence.Use ethos, pathos, logos.Avoid logical fallacies.

7 Modes of Argument Ethos Pathos Logos Ethical…based on character
Emotional…based on an emotional appealLogosLogical…based on reason and evidence

8 Ethos Establishing your credibility as an author
Citing people with authority to support your argument

9 Pathos Be careful not to rely solely on appeal to emotion.
It will weaken your argument.However, used carefully it can be very powerful.Be sure the emotion contributes to not detracts from the argument.

10 Logos Facts or statistics Personal experience Authority
Values (can be tricky if you evoke a value your reader doesn’t share)

11 Patterns of Logic Inductive reasoning Deductive reasoning
Drawing conclusions based on evidenceDeductive reasoningBegins with a basic truth and proceeds (The Declaration of Independence is a good example.)

12 Deductive reasoning Premise The Syllogism
The truth, right, or belief from which a writer deduces an argument.The SyllogismA three-part argument in which the conclusion rests on two premises.Major premise: All people have hearts.Minor premise: John is a person.Conclusion: Therefore, John has a heart.

13 Logical Fallacies Non-sequitir Hasty generalization
Conclusion that “does not follow” from the premise.Hasty generalizationDraws a conclusion about an entire group based on insufficient evidence.Post hoc: attributing false causesCites an unrelated event that occurred earlier as the cause of a current situation

14 More Logical Fallacies
Begging the questionThe assertion/premise really remains to be proven.Circular ReasoningRestates the premise rather than giving a reason for holding the premise

15 More Logical Fallacies
EquivocatingUses vague or ambiguous language to mislead an audienceIgnoring the questionChanging the subjectJumping to conclusionsConclusion has not been adequately supported by the evidenceStraw ManExaggerating opponents views or only responding to an extreme view

16 Yes…More Logical Fallacies
Presenting a false dilemmaPosing only two choices without looking at other alternativesSlippery slopeCensoring pornography will end freedom of the press.Red HerringThrowing in a side issue to distractAttributing guilt by associationPoliticians use this.Ad hominem: attacking the character of opponents

17 More Logical Fallacies
Appealing to pityShould never stand aloneAppealing to prejudiceSeen as an attempt to distract the readerAppealing to traditionEspecially if tradition is the justification for a positionArguing by analogyCan be used wrong; need to be careful

Несмотря на сомнения относительно быстродействия машины, в одном инженеры проявили единодушие: если все процессоры станут действовать параллельно, ТРАНСТЕКСТ будет очень мощным. Вопрос был лишь в том, насколько мощным. Ответ получили через двенадцать минут. Все десять присутствовавших при этом человек в напряженном ожидании молчали, когда вдруг заработавший принтер выдал им открытый текст: шифр был взломан.

ТРАНСТЕКСТ вскрыл ключ, состоявший из шестидесяти четырех знаков, за десять с небольшим минут, в два миллиона раз быстрее, чем если бы для этого использовался второй по мощности компьютер АНБ.


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