Audionym Lesson 4 Homework


Summer 2005 A.2

Unit A Master Outline

A Medical/Dental Terminology

1H01.01 Interpret medical word roots, prefixes and suffixes.

 A. Word roots1. aden2. angio3. arterio4. arthro5. carcin6. cardio7. cephal8. cerebro9. chem.10. chole11. colo12. costo13. cranio14. cyan15. cysto16. cyte17. derma18. entero19. epidemi20. erythro21. gastro22. gingival23. gloss24. glycol25. hepat26. hemo27. hydro28. hystero29. leuko30. lingua31. mamm, mast32. myelo33. myo34. nephro, ren35. neuro36. ocul, ophthal37. oophor 38. odont, dent39. osteo40. oto41. ped, pod42. phleb43. pneumo, pulm44. psych45. rhin46. salpingo47. throac48. trach


Prefixes1. a,an2. ab3. ad4. ante5. anti6. aut7. bi8. brady9. circum10. contra11. di12. diplo13. dys14. ecto15. endo, intra16. epi17. hemi18. hyper 19. hypo20. inter 21. later 22. lipo23. mal24. mega, macro25. micro26. mono, uni27. neo28. ortho29. peri30. poly31. post32. pre33. pro34. pseudo35. retro36. semi37. sub38. tachy39. tele40. trans41. ultra

Unformatted text preview: . — Lesson 5 — Element 0V3!" -centesis oto~ bili- squam~ mening- macule "Pexy OflCO" OI" sub— spiro~ Audionym over cent [ION bil] squash manage seek Mack pecks egg uncle oar submarine sparrow Lesson 5~Review : Visual Image See the overturned egg and an egg being i turned, over! ' See the cent being punctured! ‘: See the "O" toe with an ear growing out of it! i See the bills in a high pile! ; See the squash with a scale bursting out of it! See the woman managing , men’s brains! See the person seeking a passage ‘ while blindfolded! ; See the Mack truck with spots all over it! (Mack truck) See the bird that peeks the egg while i suspended in the air! * See the image of uncle and see two more! See the oar with a mouth on it! I See the submarine sandwich under the water! See the sparrow made of coils! -88- Meaning egg (egg, the female repro~ ductive cell) puncture ear bile scale membrane blind passage spot suspension tumor mouth under coil Element Iacrim— viscera— Audionym lake rim Vice row lact— onych— thorac— pyie— vesic~ sphenice myei— antifi myco- hallux lacquer onyx throw rack pie vest sick sphinx mile (mile sign) ant eye my comb hall “X” Lesson 5—-Review : Visual Image See the lake rim with a gigantic tear on it! _ See the person on the vice rowing with 5 organs! See the image of lacquer and see milk being used instead! i See the onyx ring with a nail and a claw stuck in it! See the person throwing a rack with a treasure Chest hanging on it! f See the pie with a gate on it! See the vest that is sick. It is made of . a bladder! See the Sphinx shaped like a wedge! See the mile sign supported by a narrow spinal cord! See the ant's eye against the rock! See "my comb" covered with fungus! 1 See the hall shaped like an llX” with a : great toe at the ends of each hall! -89- Meaning Ni i.“ , a « NM “AVAWMMNM tear organ nail, claw ~ chest gate bladder ‘ wedge marrow, spinal cord ‘ against fungus great toe (big toe) Lesson 5~Worksheet Print the audionyrn and meaning of the elements in the proper blanks: Element Audionym Meaning ovar- -Centesis 0t0— bili— squam- mening~ CEC- macul— ‘PeXY 011C0- 01‘- sub— spiro- lacrim- Viscero lact- onych— thorac— pyle-, pyloro— vesic— sphenic— myel- anti- myco- hallux- -90- i Lesson 5—-Word Termina|s ~es plural ending similar to «3 Examples: 0 kiss—kisses; fish—~fishes; meninx (membrane)~—meninges (membranes) -id pertaining to; “being” Examples: , fluid (flu/id)~—t0 flow frigid (frig/id)——-t0 be cold rigid (rig / id)——-t0 be stiff parotid (par / 0t / id)——-being near the ear mess state; quality; instance of being Examples: 0 great / ness, sad / ness, together / mess, loneli / ness, good / ness, sick /ness -us noun ending; used to form the name of a thing from the root Example: 0 disc / us -91- Lesson 5—Reading Assignment anti~ against / opposing; counteracting (acting against); inhibiting; preventing; sup— pressing; neutralizing or destroying; relieving This prefix is widely used in medical terms as it is in common words with the broad meaning “against.” Examples: 0 antigen (anti/gen)—~a substance that, when introduced into the body, stimu- lates the “production of” an “opposing” substance called an anti / body 0 antibody (anti / body)——-a physical substance either in the body or produced by the action of an antigen which will, prevent, relieve, or destroy the effect of infections or poisonous substances in the blood or tissues 0 antacid (ant / acid)——-a substance that counteracts or neutralizes acidity 0 antiemetic (anti / emet / ic)——-preventing or relieving nausea and vomiting 0 anticoagulant (anti / coagulant)———a substance that suppresses or opposes the coagulation of the blood bili~ bile / gali; a thick, sticky yellow or greenish fluid secreted by the liver and flowing into the intestines where it is mixed with gastric fluids to aid digestion, particularly in the breaking down of fats; chole— Gallbladder, bile cyst, cholecyst—names for the sac or pouch in which bile is stored. Examples: 0 biliary (bili/ary)——-pertaining to the bile or pertaining collectively to the bile, bile ducts, and gallbladder: 9 biliary canal (bili/ary)——-a tube (duct) through which the bile passes from the liver; hepatic duct; biliary duct * biliary tract (bili/ary)———the region that secretes and transmits bile; the bile duct and gallbladder 0 biliousness (bili/ous/ness)——-a discomfort characterized by constipation, headache, and indigestion, attributed to an excess production of bile cec- a blind passage A blind passage, like a "blind alley” is a space having only one outlet so that passage or flow cannot occur all the way through. Although the root may be used to refer to any such passage in the body, it is applied most frequently to denote the cecum. The cecum (cec/um) is a large pouch at the beginning of the large intestine with only one opening. Incidentally, the appendix hangs at the end of the cecum. As is true with other pouches in the body, the cecum may be: -92- Beading Assignment cut—cecotomy (cec / otomy) partially "cut out”——cecectomy (cec /ectomy) provided with a mouth or artificial opening——cecostomy (cec/ ostomy) sutured—cecorrhaphy (cec / o / rrhaphy) fixed (usually to the abdominal wall)——cecopexy (cec / o / pexy) The operations performed may be the result of conditions of disease or injury affecting the cecum: 0 cecoptosis (cec / o /ptosis)——-falling (downward displacement) 0 cecitis (cec / itis)——-inflammation 0 cecorrhexis (cec/o / rrhexis)——-rupturing; the cecorrhexis may have produced a hernia (cec / o / cele) 0 cecal (cec/al)—pertaining to the cecum -centesis puncture / surgical puncture or incision, usually for the purpose of drainage Examples: 0 arthrocentesis (arthr/ o /centesis)——-surgical puncture of a joint 0 cardicentesis (cardi/centesis)———surgical puncture or incision of the heart 0 pericardicentesis (peri/ cardi/ centesis)——-surgical puncture of the tissues sur- rounding the heart (the peri / cardi / um) hallux great toe / big toe This is the medical name for the big toe or the great toe; also called the first digit of the foot. The fingers and toes are called digits and are numbered from the great toe in the case of the foot and the thumb in the case of the hand. Thus, hallux 2 great toe = big toe = first digit of the foot that may be the first digit of the right foot (big toe of the right foot) or the first digit of the left foot (big toe of the left foot). lacrim— tear / the tears; tears of the eye Examples: 0 lacrimal (sometimes lachrymal) (lacrim / a1, lachrym/ al)——-pertaining to tears; relating to or situated near the organs that produce tears 0 lacrimal glands (lacrim/ al)——the glands that secrete tears 0 lacrimal ducts (lacrim/ al)——-a term for ducts (canals, tubes) conveying the secretion (tears) of the lacrimal glands to the corner of the eye (canthus) 0 lacrimotomy (lacrim/otomy)——-incision of the lacrimal duct Iact— milk / the fluid secretion of the gland of the breast in the female forming the natural food of infants Examples: ' lacteal (lact / e / al)——pertaining to milk O lactation (lact/ation)———the secretion of milk; suckling by infants 0 lactogenic (lact / o / gen / ic)~stimulating the production of milk 94 ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, __ _____________________________________________ Beers/searing 0 lactigenous (lact / i / gen / ous)-~ producing or secreting milk 0 superlactation (super / lact/ ation)——secretion of milk in greater than normal amount or for a longer than usual period macul~ spot (or stain) / blotch; spotty or blotchy discoloration, especially of the skin Examples: 0 macula (macul/a)——-a spot or blotch 0 macule (macul/e)——-a macula 0 maculation (macul/ation)——-the condition of being spotted; the formation of spots or macules [35> Note: Tumors (—0ma, 0nc-) are usually discolored but are always character— ized by swelling. A macule is a discolored spot or patch that is flat, that is neither swollen or depressed. Birthmarks and freckles are examples of macules that are usually not a sign of disease. Macula, that are indicative of disease, are the spots that appear in some of the infectious diseases such as smallpox and leprosy; psoriasis and some poisons also produce spotty discolorations. mening— membrane / the membranes covering the brain and the spinal cord (myel~) Examples: ' meningeal (mening / e / al)~—pertaining to the meninges 0 meninges (mening/es)——-name for the membranous sheath that envelops the brain and spinal cord 0 meningoencephal- (menmg/o/encephal-)~—form for the meninges and the brain or the meninges and brainy substance 0 meningitis (mening/itis)—-inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord (the meninges) 4* cerebral meningitis (cerebr/a1mening/itis)-inflammation of the meninges of the brain myco~ fungus / relating to an infection with a fungus (a kind of plant that can form a destructive pathogen {disease producer] in humans and other animals) Examples: 0 mycete (m,yc/ete)———a fungus 0 mycosis, —mycosis (myc/osis)——-”a condition of fungus (infection)”; any disease caused by a fungus 0 mycetoma, -mycetoma (myc / et/ oma, ~myc /et/ oma)——a tumor containing fungus cells (mycetocytes) - dermatomycosis (dermat/o/myc/osis)——-a fungus infection of the skin that includes the conditions commonly called "athlete’s foot” and “ring worm” 0 acromycosis (acr/o/myc/osis)——-a condition of fungus infection of the extremi- ties (limbs) Reading Assignment 95 myel~ marrow (spinal cord) / the soft inner part of a bone; the cableljke tissue enclosed in the canal or tube formed by the bones of the spine (the vertebrae) - Examples: 0 meningomyel— (mening/o/myel-)——-form for the spinal cord and its membra- nous covering; also myel / o /mening / o— 0 osteornyel- (oste/o/ myel—)——-form for bone marrow or the bone and its marrow ' osteomyelitis (oste / o /myel/ itis)—inflammation of the bone and the bone marrow 0 encephalomyel- (en / cephal / o / myel-)——-form for the brain and the spinal cord; also myel / o / en / cephal 0 encephalomyelopathy (en / cephal / o / myel / o/ path / y)——-any disease or dis- eased condition of the brain and spinal cord ‘ ¢ myeloencephalitis (myel / o / en / cephal / itis)——-inflammation of the brain and y spinal cord Note: The marrow of the bone and the spinal cord have structural similari- ties in that they are both surrounded by bone: bone marrow being the soft tissue filling the hollow interior of a bone; the spinal cord being a covered (mening—) “cable” of nerve fibers and tissues that runs through the hollowed centers of the stack of vertebrae forming the spine. onco- mass, tumor, sweliing Examples: 0 oncology (onco/logy)———the study of tumors 0 oncolysis (onco/ lysis)——the destruction of tumors and tumor cells 0 oncogenesis (onco / gen / esis)———the production or causation of tumors -oncus (—onc/us)——-designation for a swelling or tumor: 0 arthroncus (arthr /onc /us)——swelling of a joint blepharoncus (blephar / onc / us)——tumor on the eyelid cheiloncus (cheil / onc / us)——-a tumor of the lip glossoncus (gloss /onc /us)——-a swelling of the tongue mastoncus (mast / onc / us)———a tumor of the breast or mammary gland onych~ nail; claw / a fingernail, a toenail Examples: 0 onychectomy (onych/ectomy)———surgical removal of the nail or nail bed 0 onychogenic (onych / gen / ic)———forming or producing nail substance ' onychia (onych/ia)——-inflammation of the nail bed (matrix) resulting in loss of the nail, also called onychitis (onych/itis) ~onychium, —onychia (—onych/ium, —onych/ia)——-suffixes used to indicate region(s) and conditions of the nail(s): 0 eponychium (ep/onych/ium)——-the cuticle; the narrow band of skin (epider— mis) that extends from the nail wall into the nail surface 0 leukonychia (leuk/onych/ia)——-whitish spots or discoloration of the nails 96 Reading Assignment or— mouth / the mouth; the body structure bounded at the front by the lips and contain» ing the tongue and teeth This root is seen in, the well—known word oral meaning “pertaining to the mouth.” Examples: 0 orad, (or / ad)——-toward the mouth 0 circumoral (circum/ or / al)wthe area around the mouth (circum means around as in circumference, the distance around, a circle) Note: Or~ is used to designate the mouth as an anatomical part; stom—, stomat» is used to designate disease, injuries and therapy on the mouth. ota- ear / the ear Because the ear is such a prominent feature of the head, it is used not only for conditions that affect the ear, eg. pain (ot/algia), water in the ear (hydr / ot / is), inflammation (ot/itis), but also as a landmark for use in locating other body parts that are less visible; this is indicated, by the suffix stem ~otz'c (~ot/ic) or -otid (-ot/ id). Examples: 0 parotid (par/ot/id)~—situated near the ear such as the parotid gland, a salivary gland located near the ear 0 epiotic (epi/ot/ic)~situated on, or above the ear 0 entotic or endotic (ent/ot/ic or end / ot / ic)——-situated in or arising in the ear ovar- egg (the female reproductive cell) / the paired female reproductive organ that produces eggs and female sex hormones The root ov~ means “egg” and forms the medical words: 0 ovum, (ov/um)——-to denote the female reproductive cell that, upon fertilization after encountering semen- (see Lesson 4), begins the process of reproduction (the production of offspring) ° ova (ov/a)——-”eggs,” the plural of ovum The combination of elements in ov / ar- literally means “place for the ova" or, more familiarly, "an egg container. ” Examples: 0 ovary (oo/ar/y)-name for the sexual gland in the female in which the ova are formed 0 ovariogenic (ovari / 0/ gen / ic)———produced in or arising in the ovary 0 ovariocentesis (ovari/ o/ centesis)-surgical puncture of an ovary Reading Assignment I 97‘ ~pexy suspension; fixation / the surgical act of fastening or making firm or solid When organs are displaced (—ptosis), the surgical operation to repair this condition, by restoring the organ to its proper place is called “fixation” or “suspension.” The suffix «pexy is used to denote this procedure and may be interpreted as l“surgical fixation of." Examples: 0 nephropexy (nephr/ o /pexy)——surgical fixation of the kidney 0 gastropexy (gastr /o / pexy)——surgical fixation of the stomach 0 hysteropexy (hyster / o / pexy)— surgical fixation of the womb pyle—, pyloro- gate / a “gate,” an opening, a passage These elements have a basic root pyl— that carries the meaning “gate” or "opening." The root pyle— is used for relationships to an important vein, the portal vein, which is a large vein carrying blood from the digestive organs and the spleen to the liver: 0 pylic (pyl /ic)~pertaining to the portal vein ' pylethrombosis (pyle/ thromb / osis)—-a condition of clotting in the portal vein (thromb— is an element taught in Lesson 11 and it means clot) The root pylor— that literally means "gate keeper” is used for relationships to the pylorus which is the opening of the stomach into the intestines through which the stomach contents pass into the intestines: pyloric (pylor/ ic)——pertaining to the pylorus gastropylor- (gastr/ o/pylor)~form for the stomach and the pylorus gastropyloric (gastr/o/ pylor/ic)«—pertaining to the stomach and the pylorus gastropylorectomy (gastr/ o/pylor/ectomy)——excision of the pyloric portion of the stomach sphenic a wedge; wedge-shaped Examples: 0 sphenoid (sphen/ oid)——resembling a wedge; in the shape of a wedge ¢ sphenoid bone (sphen/ oid)~an irregular wedge-shaped bone at the base of the cranium 0 sphenocephaly (sphen/ o / cephal / y)—-a developmental abnormality characterized by a wedge-shaped appearance of the head spiro- coil / a coil~ a winding, twisting Examples: 0 spiroid (spir/ oid)—~—resembling a spiral or coil . spiradeno— (spir/ aden / 0—)w—a form used interchangeably with hidradeno~ 98 Iisieéiizgi‘eltz11155512! (hidr/aden/o) to denote a sweat gland; so called because of the spiral shape of a sweat gland Spiro- should not be confused, with spir- appearing in words as perspire (per / spir / e), perspiration (per / spir / ation), aspiration (a / spir / ation), respiration (re/spir/ation). In these the element means “breath” or “breathing.” squam~ scale / a scale, a platelike structure (such as scales and scaly structure on a fish) Examples: ' squama (squam/a)-~a scale or platelike structure ¢ squamous, squamosa (squam/ous, squam /osa)~scaly or platelike 0 squamate (squam / ate)——scaly,' having or resembling scales The rough skin which peels as a result of sunburn is an example of squama. Squamous carcinoma (also squamous cell carcinoma) is skin cancer. sub~ under, beneath, below / less than Examples: ' subdermal (sub /derm /al)—-situated or occurring under the skin - subnormal (sub/ norm / al)—— below or less than normal ' sublingual (sub/ lingu/al)—-located beneath the tongue; also subglossal C subinflammation (sub/ inflammation)«—a slight or mild inflammation (sub 2 below, less than, slight or mild) 0 submania (sub/ man / ia)-mania of a moderate type; also hypomania thorac- chest / the part of the body situated between the neck and the abdomen and supported by the cagelike structure formed by the ribs Examples: thorax—medical name for the chest; also called thorac/ic cavity thoracic (thorac/ ic)——(sometimes thor / ac / al)«—pertaining to the chest thoracogastr- (thorac/o/gastr-)——relating to the stomach and chest (thorax) thoracicoabdominal (thorac/ ic/ o/ abdomin/al)—~—pertaining to the chest and the abdomen suprathoracic (supra/ thorac/ic)~situated above the thorax ' hemothorax (hem / o / thorax)——a collection of blood in the lung cavity 0 O O O vesic~ bladder / a bladder; the urinary bladder Examples: ' vesica (vesic/a)——general term for a bladder 0 vesical (vesic/ al)«—pertaining to (principally) the urinary bladder Reading Assignment 99 0 vesico— (vesic/ o)——form relating to a bladder or the urinary bladder 0 vesicle—medical name for a small bladder, sac or blister containing liquid 0 vesicula (vesic/ul/ a)~general term used in anatomical nomenclature for a vesicle (small sac or bladder) 0 vesicular (vesic/ul/ar)~formed or constructed like a small sac or bladder; containing, made up of, or characterized by small saclike bodies Vesic~ compared with cyst: again we have two roots that have the same meaning but are applied differently. Vesic— is the root generally used in naming the various bladders or bladder-like structures in the body; cyst— is the root generally used in naming of diseases and therapeutic procedures involving bladders or bladder-like structures. viscero— organ / an internal organ or the internal} organs of the body especially those located in the large cavity of the trunk such as the heart, the liver, the intestines, etc. Examples: 0 visceral (viscer/ al)—-pertaining to an internal organ, especially those in the abdomen 0 viscera (viscer/a)—-name for internal organs taken collectively, especially those in the abdomen . viscerad (viscer/ ad)—-toward the viscera 0 visceroptosis (viscer /o /ptosis)—-a dropping or falling down of the viscera due, for example, to the weakness of the abdominal muscles Lesson 5—Element RecOgnition Separate the word terminals, elements, and connecting vowels of the following medical terms from right to left by inserting a slash mark ( / ) between them. Example: pylorogastrectomy—pyloro / gastr / ectomy ovigenesis "myelomeningitis thoracentesis antimycotic otolithiasis mycomyringitis bilious . ‘ oncology squamous subglos‘sitis meningocerebritis Visceralgia cecopexy lactocele macula onychorrhexis‘ nephropexy thoracoscopy oncosis mycosis oralogy antiplastic subcostal Ehepatopexy myelomalacia cecum spiroid sphenoidotomy lacrimotomy gvesicotomy Visceroptosis ;ovoid lactigenous larthrocentesis onychomalacia otodynia thoracomyodynia biligenesis pylorostenosis meningeorrhaphy vesicocele sphenocephaly -100- Lesson 5~Interpretation Exercise Complete the following statements by printing the meanings of the elements that make up the medical term in the proper blanks. (Remember, most medical terms are interpreted from right to left.) 5—1. 5—2. 5-5. 5-6. 5-7. 5-8. 5—9. 5-10. 5-11. 5-12. An antigen (anti / gen) is a substance when introduced into the body stimulates the of an opposing substance known as an antibody. The term biliary (bili/ary) denotes pertaining to or of the The cecum (cec / um) is a large pouch, having only the beginning of the large intestine. Arthrocentesis (arthr / o / centesis) refers to a surgical Hallux is the medical name for the The lacrimal (lacrim/ a1) glands secrete The term lacteal (lact/e/ al) pertains to or of A macula (macul/ a) is a Meningitis (mening/itis) is an brain and spinal cord. Mycosis (myc/osis) is a of Osteomyelitis (oste/ o/myel/ itis) is an Mastoncus (mast / onc/ us) denotes a mammary gland. ~101~ of the ofa of the opening, located at ofa covering the and its 01' 102 Interpretation Exercise 5-13. The term leukonychia (leuk/ oncyh/ ia) refers to spots or discoloration of the 5-14. Circumoral (circum / or / al) refers to the area the 5-15. The term parotid (par / ot / id) denotes being situated, the 5-16. Ovariogenic (ovari/ o / gen / ic) refers to being in the 517, Hysteropexy (hyster/ o/ pexy) is the surgical of the 5-18. A gastropylorectomy (gastr / o / pylor / ectomy) is the surgical of the portion of the containing the into the intestines. 5-19. The term sphenic (sphen/ic) pertains to being shaped. 5—20. Spiroid, (spir/ oid) means a 5—21. The term, squamous (squam/ ous) pertains to being 5-22. Sublingual (sub / lingu / al) pertains to being located the 5—23. The term thoracicoabdominal (thorac / ic/ o/abdornin / al) denotes pertaining to or of the and, the 5—24. Vesica (vesic/ a) is a general term for a 525. A Visceral (Viscer/al) denotes pertaining to an internal especially in the abdomen. ...
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